Form 10-K
Table of Contents

 

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Form 10-K

 

 

 

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED: DECEMBER 31, 2015

-OR-

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from             to            

 

 

 

Commission file number 001-36190   Commission file number 001-36191
Extended Stay America, Inc.   ESH Hospitality, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)   (Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   Delaware

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

46-3140312   27-3559821

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

11525 N. Community House Road, Suite 100

Charlotte, North Carolina 28277

(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(980) 345-1600

(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

                                                 Title of each class                                                 

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, of Extended

Stay America, Inc. and Class B Common Stock, par value

$0.01 per share, of ESH Hospitality, Inc., which are

attached and trade together as a Paired Share.

  New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None   None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Yes  ¨    No  x
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Yes  ¨    No  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨


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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    x   
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    x   

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Large accelerated filer  x    Accelerated filer  ¨
  

Non-accelerated filer  ¨

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

   Smaller reporting company  ¨
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Large accelerated filer  x    Accelerated filer  ¨
  

Non-accelerated filer  ¨

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

   Smaller reporting company  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Extended Stay America, Inc.    Yes  ¨    No  x
ESH Hospitality, Inc.    Yes  ¨    No  x

As of June 30, 2015, the aggregate value of the registrants’ Paired Shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $812.2 million, based on the number of shares held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2015 and the closing price of the registrants’ Paired Shares on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2015.

As of February 19, 2016, Extended Stay America, Inc. had 204,593,912 shares of common stock outstanding and ESH Hospitality, Inc. had 204,593,912 shares of Class B common stock and 250,493,583 shares of Class A common stock outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of our proxy statements relating to the 2016 Annual Meetings of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  
ABOUT THIS COMBINED ANNUAL REPORT      ii   
CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS      iv   
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS      iv   
PART I   
Item 1.    Business      1   
Item 1A.    Risk Factors      9   
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments      38   
Item 2.    Properties      39   
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings      40   
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures      40   
PART II   
Item 5.   

Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     41   
Item 6.    Selected Financial Data      45   
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations      51   
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk      82   
Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data      84   
Item 9.    Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure      176   
Item 9A.    Controls and Procedures      176   
Item 9B.    Other Information      180   
PART III   
Item 10.    Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance      181   
Item 11.    Executive Compensation      181   
Item 12.   

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     181   
Item 13.    Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence      182   
Item 14.    Principal Accounting Fees and Services      182   
PART IV   
Item 15.    Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules      183   

 

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ABOUT THIS COMBINED ANNUAL REPORT

This combined annual report on Form 10-K is filed by Extended Stay America, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Corporation”), and its controlled subsidiary, ESH Hospitality, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“ESH REIT”). Both the Corporation and ESH REIT have securities that have been registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), which are publicly traded and listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) as Paired Shares, as defined below. As further discussed below, unless otherwise indicated or the context requires, the terms “Company,” “Extended Stay,” “Extended Stay America,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to the Corporation, ESH REIT and their subsidiaries considered as a single enterprise.

We believe combining the annual reports on Form 10-K of the Corporation and ESH REIT into this single report results in the following benefits:

 

    Enhances investors’ understanding of the Corporation and ESH REIT by enabling investors, whose ownership of Paired Shares gives them an ownership interest in our hotel properties through ESH REIT and in the operation of the hotels and other aspects of our business through the Corporation, to view the business as a whole;

 

    Eliminates duplicative and potentially confusing disclosure and provides a more streamlined presentation, since a substantial amount of our disclosure applies to the Corporation and ESH REIT; and

 

    Creates time and cost efficiencies through the preparation of one combined report instead of two separate reports.

On November 18, 2013, the Corporation and ESH REIT completed their initial public offering (the “Offering”) of Paired Shares. Prior to the Offering, we completed the Pre-IPO Transactions (as defined in “Business—Our History—The Pre-IPO Transactions”), which restructured and reorganized the existing business. Unless otherwise indicated or the context requires:

 

    Company. Subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the term “Company” refers to the Corporation, ESH REIT and their subsidiaries considered as a single enterprise. For the period from October 8, 2010 (the “Acquisition Date”) through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the term “Company” refers to ESH REIT, ESH Strategies (as defined below), HVM (as defined below) and their subsidiaries considered as a single enterprise.

 

    Corporation. The term “Corporation” refers to Extended Stay America, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries (excluding ESH REIT and its subsidiaries), which include the Operating Lessees (as defined below), ESH Strategies (as defined below) and ESA Management (as defined below). The Corporation controls ESH REIT through its ownership of ESH REIT’s Class A common stock, which represents approximately 55% of the outstanding common stock of ESH REIT.

 

    ESH REIT. Subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the term “ESH REIT” refers to ESH Hospitality, Inc., a Delaware corporation that has elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), and its subsidiaries. For the period from the Acquisition Date through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the term “ESH REIT” refers to ESH Hospitality LLC, a Delaware limited liability company that elected to be taxed as a REIT, its subsidiaries, which prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, included three taxable REIT subsidiaries (the “Operating Lessees”) and HVM (as defined below), a consolidated variable interest entity. ESH REIT is a majority-owned subsidiary of the Corporation, which leases its hotel properties to the Operating Lessees. For the period from the Acquisition Date through the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT was indirectly owned by the Sponsors (as defined below).

 

    ESH Strategies. The term “ESH Strategies” refers to ESH Hospitality Strategies LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and its subsidiaries. ESH Strategies owns the intellectual property related to our business and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation. For the period from the Acquisition Date through the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH Strategies was indirectly owned by the Sponsors (as defined below).

 

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    ESA Management and HVM. The term “ESA Management” refers to ESA Management LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and its subsidiaries. ESA Management is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation and manages ESH REIT’s leased hotel properties on behalf of the Operating Lessees. For the period from the Acquisition Date through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the Operating Lessees engaged HVM LLC (“HVM”) as an eligible independent contractor within the meaning of Section 856(d)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), to manage the leased hotel properties on their behalf.

 

    Paired Shares. The term “Paired Shares” means the shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Corporation, together with the shares of Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of ESH REIT, which are attached and trade as a single unit.

 

    Sponsors. The term “Sponsors” collectively refers to Centerbridge Partners, L.P., Paulson & Co. Inc. and the Blackstone Group, L.P. and their funds or affiliates.

See “Business—Our Corporate Structure” for a simplified structure chart reflecting our corporate structure.

For ease of presentation:

 

    When we refer to our ownership of hotel properties, we are referring to the hotel properties owned by subsidiaries of ESH REIT.

 

    When we refer to the management and operation of our hotels, we are referring to the management of hotels by ESA Management, a subsidiary of the Corporation, and the operation of hotels by the Operating Lessees, each a subsidiary of the Corporation, subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, and the management of hotels by HVM, an eligible independent contractor, and the operation of hotels by the Operating Lessees, subsidiaries of ESH REIT, prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions.

 

    When we refer to our brands, we are referring to intellectual property related to our business owned by ESH Strategies, a subsidiary of the Corporation.

 

    When we refer to our management team, our executives or officers, we are referring to the management team (and executives and officers) of the Corporation and ESH REIT. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, when we refer to our management team, our executives or officers, we are referring to HVM’s management team (and executives and officers).

This combined annual report on Form 10-K presents the following sections or portions of sections separately for each of the Company, on a consolidated and combined basis, and ESH REIT, where applicable:

 

    Part II Item 5 – Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

    Part II Item 6 – Selected Financial Data

 

    Part II Item 7 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

    Part II Item 7A – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

    Part II Item 8 – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

As required by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810, Consolidations, due to the Corporation’s controlling financial interest in ESH REIT, the Corporation consolidates ESH REIT’s financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income and cash flows with those of the Corporation. The Corporation’s stand-alone financial condition and related information is discussed herein where applicable. In addition, with respect to other financial and non-financial disclosure items required by Form 10-K, any material differences between the Corporation and ESH REIT are discussed herein.

 

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This report also includes separate Part II Item 9A – Controls and Procedures sections and separate Exhibit 31 and 32 certifications for each of Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. in order to establish that the Chief Executive Officer and the Chief Financial Officer of each registrant has made the requisite certifications and that Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. are compliant with Rule 13a-15 or Rule 15d-15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and 18 U.S.C. §1350.

CERTAIN DEFINED TERMS

The following are definitions of lodging operating metrics used throughout this combined annual report on Form 10-K:

“ADR” or “average daily rate” means hotel room revenues divided by total number of rooms sold in a given period.

“Extended stay market” means the market of hotels with a fully equipped kitchenette in each guest room, which accept reservations and do not require a lease, as defined by The Highland Group.

“Mid-price extended stay segment” means the segment of the extended stay market that generally operates at a daily rate between $45 and $95, as defined by The Highland Group.

“Occupancy” or “occupancy rate” means the total number of rooms sold in a given period divided by the total number of rooms available during that period.

“RevPAR” or “revenue per available room” means the product of average daily room rate charged and the average daily occupancy achieved for a hotel or group of hotels in a given period. RevPAR does not include ancillary revenues, such as food and beverage revenues, or parking, pet, telephone or other guest service revenues.

When used in connection with our company-wide initiatives to reinvest in our hotel properties in this combined annual report on Form 10-K (in all cases, unless the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated), the term “hotel renovation” refers to upgrades that typically include remodeling of common areas, new paint, carpet, signage, tile or vinyl flooring and counters in bathrooms and kitchens, as well as the refurbishment of furniture, replacement of aged mattresses and installation of new flat screen televisions, artwork, lighting and bedspreads.

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This combined annual report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this combined annual report on Form 10-K may be forward-looking.

Statements herein regarding our ongoing hotel reinvestment program, our ability to meet our debt service obligations, our future capital expenditures, our distribution policies, anticipated benefits or use of proceeds from any dispositions, our plans, objectives, goals, beliefs, business strategies, future events, business conditions, results of operations, financial position and our business outlook, business trends and other information referred to under “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities – Distribution Policies” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” include forward-looking statements. When used in this combined annual report on Form 10-K, the words “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “will,” “look forward to” and variations of such words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based upon our current expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections, and various assumptions, many of which, by their nature, are inherently

 

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uncertain and beyond our control. Our expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections are expressed in good faith and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them. However, there can be no assurance that management’s expectations, beliefs, estimates and projections will result or be achieved and actual results may vary materially from what is expressed in or indicated by the forward-looking statements.

There are a number of risks, uncertainties and other important factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. Such risks, uncertainties and other important factors include, but are not limited to:

 

    changes in U.S. general and local economic activity and the impact of these changes on consumer demand for lodging and related services in general and for extended stay lodging in particular;

 

    levels of spending in the business, travel and leisure industries, as well as consumer confidence;

 

    increased competition, including the over-building of hotels in our markets and new sources of potential competition such as sharing platforms;

 

    fluctuations in the supply and demand for hotel rooms;

 

    changes in the tastes and preferences of our customers;

 

    the seasonal and cyclical nature of the real estate and lodging businesses;

 

    interruptions in transportation systems, which may result in reduced business or leisure travel;

 

    events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist attacks, travel-related health concerns, natural disasters and severe weather;

 

    our ability to implement our business strategies profitably;

 

    the availability of capital for reinvestments, including future hotel renovation, construction, development and/or acquisition;

 

    our ability to integrate and successfully operate any hotel properties acquired, developed or built in the future and the risks associated with these hotel properties;

 

    the high fixed cost of hotel operations;

 

    our ability to retain the services of certain members of our management;

 

    incidents or adverse publicity concerning our hotels or other extended stay hotels;

 

    decreases in brand loyalty due to increasing use of internet reservation channels;

 

    changes in distribution arrangements, such as those with internet travel intermediaries;

 

    our ability to keep pace with improvements in technology utilized for reservations systems and other operating systems, including technology used in the delivery of guest services;

 

    the occurrence of cybersecurity incidents;

 

    our ability to protect our trademarks and other intellectual property;

 

    the ability of ESH REIT to qualify, and remain qualified, as a REIT under the Code;

 

    actual or constructive ownership (including deemed ownership by virtue of certain attribution provisions under the Code) of Paired Shares by investors who we do not control, which may cause ESH REIT to fail to meet the REIT income tests;

 

    amendments to or elimination of the pairing arrangement or other changes to our organizational structure;

 

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    changes in federal, state, or local tax law, including legislative, administrative, regulatory or other actions affecting REITs or changes in interpretations thereof or increased taxes resulting from tax audits;

 

    our relationships with associates and changes in labor laws;

 

    the cost of compliance with and liabilities under environmental, health and safety laws;

 

    changes in real estate and zoning laws and increases in real property tax rates;

 

    changes in local market or neighborhood conditions which may diminish the value of real property;

 

    increases in interest rates, hotel operating costs or other costs we incur in connection with operating our business;

 

    our substantial indebtedness and debt service obligations, including material increases in our cost of borrowing, and our ability to refinance debt when it matures;

 

    our ability to access credit or capital markets;

 

    inadequate insurance coverage;

 

    adverse litigation judgments or settlements; and

 

    our status as a “controlled company.”

There may be other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements, including factors disclosed in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this combined annual report on Form 10-K in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

We caution you that the risks, uncertainties and other factors referenced above may not contain all of the risks, uncertainties and other factors that may be important to you. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will realize the results, benefits or developments that we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the consequences or affect us or our business in the way expected. Estimates and forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they were made and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, except as required by law.

 

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PART I

 

Item 1. Business

Our Company

We are the largest integrated owner/operator of company-branded hotels in North America. Our business operates in the extended stay lodging industry, and as of December 31, 2015, we own and operate 629 hotels comprising approximately 69,400 rooms located in 44 states across the United States and in Canada. We own and operate the substantial majority of our hotels under our core brand, Extended Stay America, which serves the mid-price extended stay segment, and accounts for approximately half of the segment by number of rooms in the United States. In addition, we own and operate three Extended Stay Canada hotels. For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Company had revenues of approximately $1.3 billion, Adjusted EBITDA of approximately $603.1 million and net income of approximately $283.0 million. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA.

Our extended stay hotels are designed to provide an affordable and attractive alternative to traditional lodging or apartment accommodations and are targeted toward self-sufficient, value-conscious guests. Our hotels feature fully-furnished rooms with in-room kitchens, complimentary grab-and-go breakfast, free WiFi, flat screen TVs and on-site guest laundry. Our guests include business travelers, leisure travelers, professionals on temporary work or training assignments, persons relocating, temporarily displaced or purchasing a home and anyone else in need of temporary housing. Our guests generally rent accommodations on a weekly or longer term basis. For the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 32.2%, 23.6% and 44.2% of our total revenues were derived from guests with stays from 1-6 nights, from 7-29 nights, and 30 or more nights, respectively.

We seek to drive our competitive advantage by becoming a dominant brand with national distribution; owning and operating hotels with great locations, affordable prices and relevant amenities; and leveraging our business model to drive superior cash flow. To achieve this competitive advantage, we focus on continually improving our product and service, improving marketing efforts, driving ADR and maximizing cost and capital structure efficiency, all while seeking to return value to our shareholders.

Our History

We were founded in 1995 as a developer, owner and operator of extended stay hotels. Following a period focused primarily on new development, we became a consolidator of hotel properties by selectively acquiring extended stay companies and hotels, ultimately creating the largest mid-price extended stay company in the United States. We were acquired out of bankruptcy by the Sponsors on October 8, 2010. We now operate an extended stay hospitality platform with approximately 8,500 employees and are led by a management team with public company experience in hospitality, consumer retail and service businesses.

Prior to the Offering, we restructured and reorganized our then-existing business through the Pre-IPO Transactions. We believe that our business is now more operationally efficient because all of the assets, operations and management of our business, other than ownership of the hotel properties, are housed in one entity. Ownership of Paired Shares gives investors an ownership interest in our hotel properties through ESH REIT and in the operation of our hotels and other aspects of our business through the Corporation. This structure permits us to retain some, though not all, of the REIT benefits of our prior structure (i.e., while ESH REIT continues to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, all distributions paid by ESH REIT to the Corporation are subject to corporate level tax, effectively eliminating approximately 55% of the tax benefit of REIT status for the consolidated enterprise).

 

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The Corporation

Extended Stay America, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware on July 8, 2013. The Corporation operates all 629 hotels owned by ESH REIT. The hotels are operated by the Operating Lessees, wholly-owned subsidiaries of the Corporation, pursuant to leases with ESH REIT, and are managed by ESA Management, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation, pursuant to management agreements with the Operating Lessees. The substantial majority of the hotels are operated under our core brand, Extended Stay America. ESH Strategies, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Corporation, owns the brands related to our business.

ESH REIT

ESH Hospitality, Inc. was formed as a limited liability company in Delaware on September 16, 2010 and was converted to a corporation on November 5, 2013. ESH REIT has elected to be taxed as a REIT. ESH REIT owns all of the Company’s 629 hotel properties, which are leased and operated by subsidiaries of the Corporation as described in the preceding paragraph.

The Pre-IPO Transactions

The Corporation was formed for the purpose of effecting the Pre-IPO Transactions. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH Hospitality Holdings LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“Holdings”), owned all of ESH REIT’s then-outstanding common equity. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the Sponsors owned an approximate 99% interest in Holdings and the remaining interests were owned by certain members of the board of managers of Holdings and Company executives. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the Operating Lessees were taxable REIT subsidiaries that leased the hotel properties from ESH REIT pursuant to operating leases. HVM was an eligible independent contractor, within the meaning of Section 856(d)(9) of the Code, that managed the hotels pursuant to management agreements with the Operating Lessees. Subsidiaries of ESH Strategies owned the trademarks and licensed their use to the Operating Lessees pursuant to trademark license agreements.

Through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the then-existing business was restructured and reorganized such that Holdings was liquidated and substantially all of the common stock of ESH REIT was distributed to the Sponsors; the Operating Lessees, ESH Strategies and the assets and obligations of HVM were transferred to the Corporation; the shareholders of ESH REIT transferred to the Corporation all of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT; and all of the common stock of the Corporation and all of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT were paired, forming the Paired Shares.

The Corporation now leases the hotel properties from ESH REIT, owns the trademarks related to the business and manages the hotels. In addition, the Corporation owns all of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, which represents approximately 55% of the outstanding shares of common stock of ESH REIT. The Corporation used the majority of the proceeds it received in the Offering to purchase a sufficient number of additional shares of Class A common stock of ESH REIT to ensure that, upon the completion of the Offering, the Class A common stock of ESH REIT owned by the Corporation represented approximately 55% of the outstanding common stock of ESH REIT.

Our Brands

We own and operate the substantial majority of our hotels under our core brand, Extended Stay America, and during 2013 completed an extensive rebranding program to consolidate hotels that were operated under the former brands of Homestead Studio Suites, Studio Plus and Extended Stay Deluxe to this single brand. Extended Stay America-branded hotels feature:

 

    In-room kitchens;

 

    Free WiFi;

 

    Free grab-and-go breakfast;

 

    Flat screen TVs with premium cable channels; and

 

    On-site guest laundry.

 

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We own and operate 626 Extended Stay America-branded hotels with approximately 68,900 rooms in the United States and three hotels with 500 rooms in Canada under the Extended Stay Canada brand.

In December 2015, we sold a portfolio of 53 hotel properties, 47 of which operated under our former Crossland Economy Studios brand and six of which operated under our Extended Stay America brand, and certain intellectual property of Crossland Economy Studios (the “Portfolio Sale”). We no longer own, operate or manage these hotel properties, nor does the Corporation own intellectual property related to Crossland Economy Studios. See Note 4 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

Our Corporate Structure

The chart below summarizes our corporate structure as of the date of this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

 

LOGO

 

 

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Our Industry

U.S. Lodging Industry

The lodging industry is a significant part of the U.S. economy, generating over $142.6 billion of room revenues in 2015 and comprising approximately 5.0 million hotel rooms as of December 31, 2015, according to STR, Inc. (f/k/a “Smith Travel Research, Inc.”) (“STR”)(1). Lodging industry performance is generally tied to both macro-economic and micro-economic trends in the United States and, similar to other industries, experiences both positive and negative operating cycles. Since the 2008 to 2009 recession, demand in the U.S. lodging industry has recovered while supply growth has remained at historically low rates. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers (“PwC”), room supply grew 1.1% in 2015 and is expected to grow 1.9% in 2016, in line with historical rates of annual supply growth. RevPAR has grown in the U.S. lodging industry for each year starting in 2010. According to PwC, RevPAR for the overall U.S. lodging industry grew 6.3% in 2015, and is expected to grow 5.5% in 2016.

U.S. Extended Stay Segment

Extended stay hotels represent a growing segment within the U.S. lodging industry with approximately 387,000 rooms for the nine months ended September 30, 2015, according to The Highland Group. The extended stay segment tends to follow the cyclicality of the overall lodging industry. Extended stay hotels are further differentiated by price point into economy, mid-price and upscale segments. Our business is focused on the mid-price extended stay segment, which comprised approximately 40% of the supply of extended stay rooms in 2015.

Seasonality

The lodging industry is seasonal in nature. Based upon the operating history of our hotels, we believe that our business is not as seasonal in nature as the overall lodging industry. However, the Company’s revenues are generally lower during the first and fourth quarters of each calendar year as is typical in the U.S. lodging industry. Because many of the Company’s expenses are fixed and do not fluctuate with changes in revenues, declines in revenues can cause disproportionate fluctuations or decreases in the Company’s quarterly earnings and operating cash flows during these periods.

ESH REIT’s revenues and earnings are generally highest during the fourth quarter of each calendar year as rental revenues contingent upon Operating Lessee hotel revenues are not earned for accounting purposes until certain hotel revenue thresholds are achieved, which typically occur in the fourth quarter. ESH REIT’s cash flows generally remain consistent each quarter of the calendar year.

Cyclicality

The lodging industry is cyclical and its fundamental performance tends to follow the general economy, albeit on a lagged basis. There is a history of increases and decreases in demand for hotel rooms, occupancy levels and rates realized by owners of hotel properties through economic cycles. Variability of results through some economic cycles in the past has been more severe due to changes in the supply of hotel rooms in given markets or in given categories of hotels. The combination of changes in economic conditions and in the supply of hotel rooms can result in significant volatility in results of operations for owners and/or operators of hotel properties. The costs of running a hotel, and in particular an extended stay hotel, tend to be more fixed than variable. Because of this, in an environment of either increasing or decreasing revenues, the rate of change in earnings will be greater than the rate of change in revenues. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Lodging Industry—The lodging industry, including the extended stay segment, is cyclical and a worsening of general economic conditions or low levels of economic growth could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.”

 

(1) STR does not endorse or provide any guidance to any proposed investment in Extended Stay America, Inc. or ESH Hospitality, Inc.

 

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Competition

We operate in a highly competitive industry. Competition in the lodging industry is based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition, supply and availability of alternative lodging and ability to reach people through multiple channels. Competitors may include new participants in the lodging industry and participants in other segments of the lodging industry that may enter the extended stay segment. They may also include existing participants in the extended stay segment that may increase their product offerings to include facilities in the mid-price segment. We also compete for travelers with hotels outside the extended stay segment as well as serviced apartments and private homes, rooms and apartments rented on the internet. In addition, we face competition for both quality acquisition opportunities and locations to build new hotels as well as for guests to fill and pay for those hotels. We also face competition from third-party internet travel intermediaries, such as Priceline.com, Booking.com, Expedia.com and Travelocity.com, and specialized intermediaries that locate and reserve hotel rooms for corporate lodgers. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Lodging Industry—We operate in a highly competitive industry.”

Employees

We employ approximately 8,500 employees. Approximately 8,000 of these employees are hotel property-level employees, comprised of approximately 3,500 full time employees and approximately 4,500 part time employees. None of our employees are currently represented by unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relations with our employees to be good.

Sales, Marketing and Reservations

Our sales team is made up of approximately 150 sales professionals focused on growing our business with key accounts, building relationships with new customers and coaching our hotel operations teams on local sales. We are organized regionally and by account, and our team focuses on the following customers: major Fortune 500 companies; small and medium sized businesses; travel agencies; relocation and staffing consultants; and medical, technology, government and educational organizations. Approximately 40% of our total revenues in 2015 was derived from accounts managed by this team. Our upgraded brand and amenity offerings now allow our sales team to target a broader corporate customer base. We recently implemented a new sales structure that provides more centralized support as we believe further penetration of corporate accounts will yield a more profitable customer base.

We seek to maximize revenue in each hotel through our revenue management team, made up of approximately 40 professionals. They are responsible for determining prices and managing the availability of room inventory to different channels and customer segments. We phased in most of the functionality for our automated revenue management system across our entire portfolio of hotels by the end of 2015 and we expect to complete rolling out the final system functions by the end of the first quarter of 2016. This system allows us to automatically price against demand from our short and long-term guests. We believe that this system will further improve our sales team’s efficiency and effectiveness.

Our marketing strategy is focused on growing awareness of our brand, Extended Stay America, and demand for our hotels through a combination of media channels, including print, public relations and email marketing. We also put a significant emphasis on our internet activity, buying search engine placement, internet display advertising and other media to drive traffic to our website. We maintain a customer database and use it for targeted marketing activity. During 2015, we launched our new customer loyalty program, called Extended Perks, which has more than one million members. The program is built around the idea of “instant rewards – no points required” with members receiving discounts on our rooms, offers and discounts from our merchandise partners, as well as check-in and room preference priorities. We believe this program will help us generate repeat business and market directly to more of our customers.

 

 

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We use a central reservation system to provide access to our hotel inventory through a wide variety of channels—property-direct, our central call center, our desktop and mobile websites, travel agency global distribution systems and our wholesale and online booking partners. We outsource our reservation system, our call center and management of our website. For the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 37.2% of our total revenues was derived from property-direct reservations, approximately 24.6% was derived from our central call center, approximately 17.8% was derived from our own proprietary website, approximately 10.7% was derived from online booking partners and approximately 9.7% was derived from global distribution systems. We believe we also have an opportunity to increase the power and reach of our distribution network by enhanced connections with additional agency, merchant and wholesale partners.

Environmental, Health and Safety Matters

Our hotel properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws that impose liability for contamination. Under these laws, governmental entities have the authority to require us, as the current or former owner of the property, to perform or pay for the clean-up of contamination (including hazardous substances, waste or petroleum products) at or emanating from the property and to pay for natural resource damage arising from contamination. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or caused the contamination. Such liability can be joint and several, so that each covered person can be responsible for all of the costs involved, even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination. We can also be liable to private parties for costs of remediation, personal injury and death and/or property damage resulting from contamination at or emanating from our hotel properties. Moreover, environmental contamination can affect the value of a property and, therefore, an owner’s ability to borrow funds using the property as collateral or to sell the property on favorable terms or at all. Furthermore, persons who sent waste to a waste disposal facility, such as a landfill or an incinerator, may be liable for costs associated with cleanup of that facility.

Phase I environmental assessments were obtained for substantially all of our hotel properties in 2012 and for all hotel properties purchased since that time. The Phase I environmental assessments were intended to identify potential contamination, but did not include any invasive sampling procedures, such as soil or ground water sampling. The Phase I environmental assessments identified a number of known or potential environmental conditions associated with historic uses of the hotel properties or adjacent properties. However, the Phase I environmental assessments did not identify any environmental liability that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, assets, results of operations or liquidity. It is possible that these environmental assessments did not reveal all potential environmental liabilities, such as the presence of former underground tanks for the storage of petroleum-based or waste products, that could create a potential for release of hazardous substances. In addition, it is possible that environmental liabilities have arisen since the assessments were completed. No assurances can be given that (i) future regulatory requirements will not impose any material environmental liability, or (ii) the current environmental condition of our hotel properties will not be affected by the condition of properties in the vicinity of our hotel properties (such as the presence of leaking underground storage tanks) or by third parties unrelated to us.

We have obtained environmental insurance subject to limits, deductibles and exclusions customarily carried for similar businesses. We believe that our environmental insurance policy is appropriate and adequate given the relative risk of loss, the cost of the coverage and industry practice; however, our environmental insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover our losses.

In addition, our hotels (including our real property, operations and equipment) are subject to various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety regulatory requirements that address a wide variety of issues, including, but not limited to, the use, management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, air emissions, discharges of waste materials (such as refuge or sewage), the registration, maintenance and operation of our boilers and storage tanks, asbestos and lead-based paint. Some of our hotels also routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations, which are subject to regulation (for

 

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example, swimming pool chemicals or biological waste). Our hotels incur costs to comply with these environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, and if these regulatory requirements are not met or become more stringent in the future, or unforeseen events result in the discharge of dangerous or toxic substances at our hotel properties, we could be subject to materially increased costs of compliance, fines and penalties for non-compliance, and material liability from third parties for harm to the environment, damage to real property or personal injury and death. We are aware of no past or present environmental liability for non-compliance with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, assets or results of operations.

Certain hotels we currently own or those we acquire in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained asbestos-contaminating material (“ACM”). Environmental, health and safety laws require that ACM be properly managed and maintained, and include requirements to undertake special precautions, such as removal or abatement, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, renovation or demolition of a building. These laws regarding ACM may impose fines and penalties on building owners, employers and operators for failure to comply with these requirements or expose us to third-party liability. We are not presently aware of any ACM at our hotel properties that would result in a material adverse effect on our business, assets or results of operations.

In addition, when excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold at any of our hotel properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property. In addition, the presence of significant mold could expose us to liability from our guests, employees and others if or when property damage or health concerns arise. We are not presently aware of any indoor air quality issues at our hotel properties that would result in a material adverse effect on our business, assets or results of operations.

Intellectual Property

In the highly competitive hospitality industry in which we operate, trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos and other proprietary rights are very important to the success of our business. The Corporation has a significant number of trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos, other proprietary rights and pending registrations and expends significant resources each year on surveillance, registration and protection of its trademarks, service marks, trade names, logos and other proprietary rights.

Regulation

A number of states and local governments regulate the licensing of hotels by requiring registration, disclosure statements and compliance with specific standards of conduct. We believe that each of our hotels has the necessary permits and approvals to operate its respective business and we intend to continue to obtain these permits and approvals for any new hotels. We are also subject to laws governing our relationship with our employees, including minimum wage requirements, overtime, working conditions and work permit requirements. An increase in the minimum wage rate, employee benefit costs or other costs associated with employees could materially adversely affect our business, including our results of operations. There are frequently proposals under consideration, at the federal and state levels, to increase the minimum wage and to expand overtime pay requirements.

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (the “ADA”), all public accommodations are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. We attempt to satisfy ADA requirements in the designs for and operation of our hotels and other facilities subject to the ADA, but we cannot assure you that we will not be subjected to a material ADA claim. If that were to happen, we could be ordered to

 

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spend substantial sums to achieve compliance, fines could be imposed against us, and we could be required to pay damage awards to private litigants. The ADA and other regulatory initiatives could materially adversely affect our business as well as the lodging industry in general.

Insurance

We currently have the types and amounts of insurance coverage that we consider appropriate for a company in our business. While we believe that our insurance coverage is adequate, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected if we were held liable for amounts exceeding the limits of our insurance coverage or for claims outside the scope of our insurance coverage.

Available Information

Our website address is www.extendedstayamerica.com. Our combined annual reports on Form 10-K, combined quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports, are available free of charge through our website under “Investor Relations” or at www.aboutstay.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the electronic filing of these reports is made with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website, is expressly not incorporated by reference in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

You should carefully consider the following risks as well as the other information included in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.

Risks Related to the Lodging Industry

We operate in a highly competitive industry.

The lodging industry is highly competitive. We compete with traditional hotels and lodging facilities (including limited service hotels), other purpose built extended stay hotels (including those owned and operated by major hospitality chains with well-established and recognized brands and individually-owned extended stay hotels) and alternative lodging (including serviced apartments and private homes, rooms and apartments rented on the internet). Many of the major hospitality chains own multiple brands that provide substantial economies of scale. We expect that competition within the mid-price segment of the extended stay lodging market will continue as we face increased competition from third-party internet travel intermediaries, such as Priceline.com, Booking.com, Expedia.com and Travelocity.com, particularly as those intermediaries continue to consolidate, and specialized intermediaries that locate and reserve hotel rooms for corporate lodgers. We compete based on a number of factors, including room rates, quality of accommodations, service levels, convenience of location, reputation, reservation systems, brand recognition, supply and availability of alternative lodging and ability to reach people through multiple channels. See “Business—Competition.” To maintain our rates, we may face pressure to offer increased services and amenities at our hotel properties, comparable to those offered at traditional hotels, which could increase our operating costs and reduce our profitability. We do not expect to increase our rates to match all of our competitors, and a number of our competitors have a significant number of individuals participating in well-established guest loyalty programs, which may enable them to attract more customers and more effectively retain such customers. Our competitors may also have greater financial and marketing resources than we do, which could allow them to reduce their rates, offer greater convenience, services or amenities, build new hotels in direct competition with our existing hotels, improve their properties, and expand and improve their marketing efforts, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The lodging industry, including the extended stay segment, is cyclical and a worsening of general economic conditions or low levels of economic growth could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.

The performance of the lodging industry, including the extended stay segment, is closely linked to the performance of the general economy and is sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Declines in corporate budgets and spending and consumer demand due to adverse general economic conditions, risks affecting or reducing travel patterns, lower consumer confidence and high unemployment or adverse political conditions can lower the revenues and profitability of our hotels.

Changes in consumer demand and general business cycles can subject, and have subjected, our revenues to significant volatility. The majority of our expenses are relatively fixed. These fixed expenses include labor costs, interest, real estate taxes and insurance premiums, all of which may increase at a greater rate than our revenues. The expenses of owning and operating hotels are not significantly reduced when circumstances such as market and economic factors and competition cause a reduction in revenues. Where cost-cutting efforts are insufficient to offset declines in revenues, we could experience a material decline in margins and reduced operating cash flows or losses. If we are unable to decrease our expenses significantly or rapidly when demand for our hotels decreases, the decline in our revenues could have a material adverse effect on our net operating cash flows and profitability. This effect can be especially pronounced during periods of economic contraction or slow economic growth.

 

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In addition to general economic conditions, new hotel room supply is an important factor that can affect the lodging industry’s performance and overbuilding has the potential to further exacerbate the negative effect of an economic downturn or precipitate a cycle turn. Room rates and occupancy, and thus RevPAR, tend to increase when demand growth exceeds supply growth. Decline in hotel room demand, or a continued growth in hotel room supply, could result in revenues that are substantially below expectations or result in losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay distributions to our shareholders. See “Business—Our Industry” for a description of increases in hotel room supply.

The extended stay segment has tended to follow the overall cyclicality of the lodging industry. In periods of declining demand, competition for guests may result in more reliance on longer-term guests, who generally pay lower rates than shorter-term guests, which could reduce revenues, margins and profitability. Equally, in periods of increasing demand, a transition to shorter-term guests paying higher rates might result in increased hotel expenses for amenities considered necessary to attract those guests, such as daily rather than weekly housekeeping, potentially reducing operating margins.

Uncertainty regarding the rate, pace and duration of recovery from the last economic downturn and the impact any such recovery may have on the lodging industry makes it difficult to predict future profitability levels. A slowing of the current economic recovery or new economic weakness could materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

We are subject to the operating risks common to the lodging industry.

Changes in general and local economic and market conditions and other factors beyond our control as well as the business, financial, operating and other risks common to the lodging industry and inherent to the ownership of hotels could materially adversely affect demand for lodging products and services. This includes demand for rooms at hotel properties that we own, operate and potentially develop, construct or acquire. These factors include:

 

    changes in the relative mix of extended stay brands in various industry price categories;

 

    over-building of hotels in our markets;

 

    changes in the desirability of particular geographic locations, lodging preferences and travel patterns of customers;

 

    new sources of potentially competitive supply, such as private homes, rooms or apartments rented on the internet;

 

    increases in customer price sensitivity, making it more difficult to achieve planned ADR increases;

 

    dependence on corporate and commercial travelers and on tourism;

 

    decreased demand for longer-term lodging or lodging facilities;

 

    decreased corporate budgets and spending and cancellations, deferrals or renegotiations of group business;

 

    high levels of unemployment and depressed housing prices;

 

    increases in operating costs due to inflation and other factors that may not be offset by increased room rates;

 

    increases in the cost, or the lack of availability, of capital to operate, maintain and renovate our existing hotel properties or to potentially develop, construct or acquire new hotel properties;

 

    potential increases in labor costs, including as a result of increases to federal and state minimum wage levels, changes to overtime eligibility, unionization of the labor force and increasing health care insurance expense;

 

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    changes in taxes and governmental regulations that influence or set wages, prices, interest rates or construction and maintenance procedures and costs;

 

    the costs and administrative burdens associated with compliance with applicable laws and regulations; and

 

    events beyond our control that may disproportionately affect the travel industry, such as war, terrorist attacks, travel-related health concerns, transportation and fuel prices, interruptions in transportation systems, travel-related accidents, fires, natural disasters and severe weather.

These factors can adversely affect, and from time to time have materially adversely affected, individual hotel properties, particular regions or our business as a whole. How we manage any one or more of these factors, or any crisis, could limit or reduce demand and the rates we are able to charge for rooms or services, which could materially adversely affect our operating results and future growth. These factors may be exacerbated by the relatively illiquid nature of our real estate holdings, which limits our ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic and other conditions.

Our revenues are subject to seasonal fluctuations.

The lodging industry is seasonal in nature. The Company’s occupancy rates and revenues generally are lower during the first and fourth quarter of each calendar year. Quarterly variations in hotel revenues could materially adversely affect the Company’s near term operating revenues and cash flows, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Business

If we fail to implement our business strategies, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Our financial performance and success depend in large part on our ability to successfully implement our business strategies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully implement our business strategies, realize any benefit from our strategies or be able to continue improving our results of operations. We may spend significant amounts in connection with our business strategies, which would result in increased costs but may not result in expected increased revenues or improved results of operations.

Implementation of our business strategies could be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, such as increased competition, legal and regulatory developments, general economic conditions or increases in our operating costs. Any failure to successfully implement our business strategies could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may, in addition, decide to alter or discontinue certain aspects of our business strategies at any time.

Our capital expenditures may not result in our expected improvements in our business.

We are executing a phased hotel reinvestment program across our portfolio in order to seek to drive incremental market share gains. As of December 31, 2015, we have substantially completed renovations at 463 hotels, with total incurred costs of approximately $456.3 million. Also, as of December 31, 2015, we are in the process of implementing renovations at 13 additional hotels and will begin renovations at an additional 43 hotels during the first quarter of 2016, with combined estimated total costs of approximately $62.7 million. Renovations for all remaining Extended Stay America-branded hotels are expected to be completed by early 2017, with estimated total costs of approximately $125.8 million. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Expenditures.”

The realization of returns on our capital investments in line with our expectations is dependent on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, general economic conditions, other events beyond our control, whether

 

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our assumptions in making the investment were correct and changes in the factors underlying our investment decision, such as changes in the tastes and preferences of our customers. We can provide no assurance that we will continue to see the types of returns that we have achieved on our historical capital expenditures, that we will realize our expected returns on our current investments, or any returns at all, or that our future investments will result in our expected returns on investments, returns that are consistent with our prior returns on capital expenditure investments, or any returns at all. Growth that we do realize as a result of our capital expenditures is expected to stabilize over time. A failure to realize our expected returns on capital investments could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Access to capital, timing, budgeting and other risks associated with the ongoing need for capital expenditures at our hotel properties could materially adversely affect our financial condition and limit our ability to compete effectively and pay distributions to our shareholders.

The lodging industry is a capital intensive business that requires significant capital expenditures to own and operate hotel properties. In addition, we must maintain, renovate and improve our hotel properties in order to remain competitive, maintain the value and brand standards of our hotel properties and comply with applicable laws and regulations.

Maintenance, renovations and improvements to our hotel properties create an ongoing need for cash and, to the extent we cannot fund expenditures from cash generated by operations, funds must be borrowed or otherwise obtained. We also intend to pay regular distributions, which means we may not retain cash for future capital expenditures. Access to the capital that we need to renovate and maintain our existing hotel properties and to develop, construct or acquire new hotel properties is critical to the continued growth of our business and our revenues. The availability of capital or the conditions under which we can obtain capital can have a significant impact on the overall level, cost and pace of future renovation, development, construction or acquisition and therefore the ability to meaningfully grow our revenues. As of December 31, 2015, we had total indebtedness of approximately $2.8 billion, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount of approximately $35.2 million. Our substantial indebtedness may impair our ability to borrow additional amounts. Our ability to access additional capital could also be limited by the terms of our indebtedness and any future indebtedness, which restrict or will restrict our ability to incur debt under certain circumstances. In particular, ESH REIT’s $1.91 billion mortgage loan, net of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $19.5 million, entered into on November 30, 2012 (the “ 2012 Mortgage Loan”) and ESH REIT’s $361.5 million term loan facility, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount of approximately $4.9 million, entered into on June 23, 2014 (the “2014 Term Loan”) prohibit any further encumbrances on the collateral securing that indebtedness, which is comprised of substantially all of our hotels. In the past, reduced ongoing maintenance and/or capital investment in our hotel properties resulted in declining performance of our business.

Additionally, our ongoing operations and capital expenditures subject us to the following risks:

 

    potential environmental problems, such as the need to remove or abate asbestos-containing materials;

 

    design defects, construction cost overruns (including labor and materials) and delays;

 

    difficulty obtaining zoning, occupancy and other required permits or authorizations;

 

    the possibility that revenues will be reduced temporarily while rooms offered are out of service due to capital improvement projects; and

 

    a possible shortage of available cash to fund capital improvements and the related possibility that financing for these capital improvements may not be available on affordable terms or at all.

If the cost of funding renovations or enhancements exceeds budgeted amounts, and/or the time period for renovation or development is longer than initially anticipated, our profits could be reduced. If we are forced to spend larger amounts of cash from operations than anticipated to operate, maintain or renovate existing hotel

 

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properties, then our ability to use cash for other purposes, including paying distributions to our shareholders or the potential development, construction or acquisition of hotel properties, could be limited and our profits could be reduced. Similarly, if we cannot access the capital we need to fund our operations or implement our business strategies, we may need to postpone or cancel planned maintenance, renovations or improvements plans, which could impair our ability to compete effectively and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to the risks resulting from real estate ownership, which could increase our costs, reduce our profitability and limit our ability to respond to market conditions.

Our principal assets consist of real property. Our real estate ownership subjects us to additional risks not applicable to those competitors in the lodging industry that only manage or franchise hotel properties, including:

 

    the illiquid nature of real estate, which may limit our ability to promptly sell one or more hotels in our portfolio in response to changing financial conditions;

 

    adverse changes in economic and market conditions;

 

    real estate, insurance, zoning, tax, environmental and eminent domain laws, including the condemnation of our properties;

 

    fluctuations in real estate values or impairments in the value of our assets;

 

    the ongoing need for capital improvements and expenditures to maintain, renovate or upgrade hotel properties;

 

    risks associated with mortgage debt, including the possibility of default, fluctuating interest rate levels and the availability of replacement financing;

 

    the average age of hotels in our portfolio, which is approximately 17 years;

 

    risks associated with the possibility that expense increases will outpace revenue increases and that in the event of an economic downturn, our high proportion of fixed expenses will make it difficult to reduce our expenses to the extent required to offset declining revenues;

 

    changes in laws and regulations, fiscal policies and zoning ordinances and the related costs of compliance; and

 

    events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist attacks, travel-related accidents, extreme weather and force majeure events, including earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes, fires or floods.

Economic and other conditions may materially adversely affect the valuation of our hotel properties resulting in impairment charges that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and earnings.

We hold a significant amount of long-lived assets, including goodwill and intangible assets. We evaluate our tangible and intangible assets annually for impairment, or more frequently based on various triggers, including when a property has current or projected operating losses or when other material trends, contingencies or changes in circumstances indicate that a triggering event has occurred, such that an asset’s value may not be recoverable. See Note 2 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. Times of economic distress and/or uncertainty, declining demand and declining earnings often result in declining asset values for real estate and real property. As a result, we have incurred, and are likely to incur in the future, impairment charges which may be material and adversely affect our results of operations and earnings.

 

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We have a significant amount of debt and debt service obligations that could adversely affect our financial condition and reduce operational flexibility.

We have a significant amount of debt. As of December 31, 2015, we had total indebtedness of approximately $2.8 billion, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount of approximately $35.2 million, and the Company had a debt-to-equity ratio of 1.9x. In the future, subject to compliance with the covenants included in our current indebtedness, we may incur significant additional indebtedness and intercompany indebtedness to finance future hotel acquisitions, developments, renovation and improvement activities and for other corporate purposes. Our substantial level of indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition because it could, among other things:

 

    require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows to make principal and interest payments on indebtedness, thereby reducing our cash flows available to fund working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes, including our ability to pay cash distributions to our shareholders;

 

    increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions and limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry;

 

    limit our ability to borrow additional funds or refinance indebtedness on favorable terms or at all to expand our business or ease liquidity constraints; and

 

    place us at a competitive disadvantage relative to competitors that have less indebtedness or greater resources.

We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flows to enable us to pay our indebtedness, fund our other liquidity needs, including existing or future capital needs, or pay distributions to our shareholders. If we are unable to meet our debt service obligations, our indebtedness will prevent us from paying cash distributions with respect to our stock. In such case, in order to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Code, ESH REIT may distribute taxable stock dividends to its shareholders in the form of additional shares of its stock.

We will need to refinance all or a portion of our debt on or before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our debt on attractive terms at or before maturity or on commercially reasonable terms or at all, particularly because of our substantial levels of debt and because of restrictions on debt prepayment and additional debt incurrence contained in the agreements governing our existing debt. Our future results of operations and our ability to service, extend or refinance our indebtedness will be subject to future economic conditions and to financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.

The terms of the agreements governing our indebtedness have restrictive covenants and our failure to comply with any of these could put us in default, which would have an adverse effect on our business, including our current and future prospects. These covenants may restrict, among other activities, our ability to:

 

    merge, consolidate or transfer all or substantially all of our assets;

 

    sell, transfer, pledge or encumber our stock or the ownership interests of our subsidiaries;

 

    incur additional debt;

 

    incur certain liens;

 

    enter into, terminate or modify leases for our hotel properties;

 

    make certain expenditures, including capital expenditures;

 

    pay distributions on or repurchase our capital stock; and

 

    enter into certain transactions with affiliates.

 

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In addition, under our 2012 Mortgage Loan, the occurrence of (i) an Event of Default, (ii) a Debt Yield Trigger Event or (iii) a Guarantor Bankruptcy Event would result in a Cash Trap Event, each as defined. During the period of a Cash Trap Event, any excess cash flow, after all monthly requirements are fully funded (including the payment of budgeted management fees and operating expenses), would be held by the loan service agent as additional collateral for the 2012 Mortgage Loan, which would prevent ESH REIT from making cash distributions.

Under both the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility and the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility, the occurrence of a Trigger Event or an Adjusted Trigger Event or a Default or an Event of Default (each as defined) would require the Corporation or ESH REIT, as the case may be, to prepay advances existing under its revolving credit facility and cash collateralize outstanding letters of credit. During a Trigger Event, Adjusted Trigger Event, a Default or an Event of Default, the Corporation or ESH REIT, as the case may be, would be restricted from making cash distributions. For a more detailed description of the financial and other covenants imposed by the agreements governing our indebtedness, see Note 7 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

These covenants could impair our ability to grow our business, take advantage of attractive business opportunities, successfully compete or pay distributions to shareholders. Our ability to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants may be affected by events beyond our control, including general economic, financial and industry conditions. A breach of any of the covenants under any of the agreements governing our indebtedness could result in an event of default. Cross-default provisions in the debt agreements could cause an event of default under one debt agreement to trigger an event of default under other debt agreements. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under any of our debt agreements, the lenders could elect to declare all outstanding debt under such agreements to be immediately due and payable. If we are unable to repay or refinance the accelerated debt, the lenders could proceed against any assets pledged to secure that debt, which could include the foreclosure on some or all of the hotel properties securing such indebtedness. Furthermore, the agreements governing any future indebtedness will likely contain covenants that place additional restrictions on us.

Mortgage and term loan obligations expose us to the possibility of foreclosure, which could result in the loss of any hotel property subject to mortgage or term loan debt.

The 2012 Mortgage Loan is secured by mortgages on 625 of our 629 hotel properties and related assets. The 2014 Term Loan is secured by ESH REIT’s pledges of direct and indirect equity in the 2012 Mortgage Loan obligors. Incurring mortgage and other secured debt obligations increases our risk of property losses because defaults on secured indebtedness may result in foreclosure actions initiated by lenders and ultimately our loss of the hotel properties or other properties securing such loans. If such obligors were in default under a loan, we could lose some or all of the hotel properties securing, directly or indirectly, such loan to foreclosure. For tax purposes, a foreclosure of our hotel properties would be treated as a sale of the hotel for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the hotel, ESH REIT would recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but would not receive any cash proceeds, which could hinder ESH REIT’s ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Code. The Company also may assume or incur new mortgage indebtedness on hotel properties that it develops, constructs or acquires in the future. Any default under any one of ESH REIT’s existing or future mortgage debt obligations may increase its risk, or the Company’s risk, of default on its other indebtedness.

Rating agency downgrades or withdrawals may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital.

Our debt currently has a non-investment grade rating, and there can be no assurance that any rating assigned by the rating agencies will remain for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the

 

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rating, such as adverse changes, so warrant. A lowering or withdrawal of our credit ratings may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital, which could have a material adverse impact on its financial condition and results of operations.

Our business depends on the quality and reputation of our brands, and any deterioration in the quality or reputation of our brands or the lodging industry could materially adversely affect our market share, reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our brands and our reputation are among our most important assets. We operate the substantial majority of our hotels under our core brand, Extended Stay America. Our ability to attract and retain guests depends, in part, upon the external perceptions of Extended Stay America, the quality of our hotels and services and our corporate and management integrity. An incident involving the potential safety or security of our guests or employees, or negative publicity regarding safety or security at our competitors’ properties or in respect of our third-party vendors and the industry, and any media coverage resulting therefrom, may harm our brands and our reputation, cause a loss of consumer confidence in Extended Stay America and the industry, and materially adversely affect our results of operations. The considerable expansion in the use of social media and online review sites over recent years has compounded the potential scope and speed of any negative publicity that could be generated by such incidents, whether or not the description of any events by social media is accurate. Adverse incidents have occurred in the past and are likely to occur in the future.

In addition, we believe that the Corporation’s trademarks and other intellectual property are fundamental to the reputation of our brands. The Corporation develops, maintains, licenses and polices a substantial portfolio of trademarks and other intellectual property rights. To the extent necessary, the Corporation enforces its intellectual property rights to protect the value of its trademarks, our development activities, to protect our good name, to promote brand recognition, to enhance our competitiveness and to otherwise support our business goals and objectives. The Corporation relies on trademark laws to protect its proprietary rights. Monitoring for unauthorized use of the Corporation’s intellectual property is difficult. Litigation may be necessary to enforce the Corporation’s intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources, may result in counterclaims or other claims against the Corporation and could significantly harm our results of operations. From time to time, the Corporation applies to have certain trademarks registered. There is no guarantee that such trademark registrations will be granted. We cannot assure you that all of the steps the Corporation has taken to protect its trademarks will be adequate to prevent imitation of its trademarks by others. The unauthorized reproduction of the Corporation’s trademarks could diminish the value of our brands and their market acceptance, competitive advantages or goodwill, which could materially adversely affect our business and financial condition.

We could incur significant costs related to government regulation over environmental, health and safety matters.

Our hotel properties are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws that impose liability for contamination. Under these laws, governmental entities have the authority to require us, as the current or former owner of the property, to perform or pay for the clean-up of contamination (including hazardous substances, waste or petroleum products) at or emanating from the property and to pay for natural resource damage arising from contamination. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or caused the contamination. Such liability can be joint and several, so that each covered person can be responsible for all of the costs involved, even if more than one person may have been responsible for the contamination. We can also be liable to private parties for costs of remediation, personal injury and death and/or property damage resulting from contamination at or emanating from our hotel properties. Moreover, environmental contamination can affect the value of a property and, therefore, an owner’s ability to borrow funds using the property as collateral or to sell the property on favorable terms or at all. Furthermore, persons who sent waste to a waste disposal facility, such as a landfill or an incinerator, may be liable for costs associated with cleanup of that facility.

 

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In addition, our hotels (including our real property, operations and equipment) are subject to various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety regulatory requirements that address a wide variety of issues, including, but not limited to, the use, management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, air emissions, discharges of waste materials (such as refuge or sewage), the registration, maintenance and operation of our boilers and storage tanks, asbestos and lead-based paint. Some of our hotels also routinely handle and use hazardous or regulated substances and wastes as part of their operations, which are subject to regulation (for example, swimming pool chemicals or biological waste). Our hotels incur costs to comply with these environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and if these regulatory requirements are not met or become more stringent in the future or unforeseen events result in the discharge of dangerous or toxic substances at our hotel properties, we could be subject to increased costs of compliance, fines and penalties for non-compliance and material liability from third parties for harm to the environment, damage to real property or personal injury and death.

In particular, certain hotels we currently own or those we acquire in the future contain, may contain, or may have contained, ACM. Environmental, health and safety laws require that ACM be properly managed and maintained, and include requirements to undertake special precautions, such as removal or abatement, if ACM would be disturbed during maintenance, renovation or demolition of a building. These laws regarding ACM may impose fines and penalties on building owners, employers and operators for failure to comply with these requirements or expose us to third-party liability.

The geographic concentration of our portfolio may make us particularly susceptible to adverse developments in those geographic areas in which we operate a substantial portion of our hotels.

The concentration of our hotel properties in a particular geographic area may materially impact our operating results if that area is impacted by negative economic developments or other unfavorable factors. As of December 31, 2015, 14.5% of our rooms were in California, 9.9% of our rooms were in Texas, 8.3% of our rooms were in Florida and 5.5% of our rooms were in Illinois. We are particularly susceptible to adverse economic or other conditions in these markets (such as periods of economic slowdown or recession, business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocations of businesses, increases in real estate and other taxes and the cost of complying with governmental regulations or increased regulation), as well as to extreme weather, natural disasters or terrorist events that occur in these markets. Our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected by any significant adverse developments in any of those markets. Our operations may also be materially adversely affected if competing hotels are built in these markets. Furthermore, submarkets within any of these markets may be dependent on the economic performance of a limited number of industries which drive those markets.

We may seek to expand through development or acquisitions of other companies and hotel properties, and we may also seek to divest of some of our hotel properties and other assets or diversify through franchising; these activities may be unsuccessful or divert our management’s attention.

We intend to consider strategic and complementary acquisitions of other companies and hotel properties. In many cases, we will be competing for these opportunities with third parties that may have substantially greater financial resources than we do. Acquisitions of companies or hotel properties are subject to risks that could affect our business, including risks related to:

 

    failing to consummate acquisitions after incurring significant transaction costs;

 

    issuing shares of stock that could dilute the interests of our existing shareholders;

 

    spending cash and incurring significant debt;

 

    contributing hotel properties or related assets to ventures that could result in the recognition of losses;

 

    assuming unknown and contingent liabilities; or

 

    creating additional expenses.

 

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The success of any acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to integrate the acquisition with our existing operations. We may experience difficulty with integrating acquired companies, hotel properties or other assets, including difficulties relating to:

 

    acquiring hotel properties with undisclosed defects in design or construction or requiring unanticipated capital improvements;

 

    entering new markets;

 

    integrating corporate personnel, offices and support systems;

 

    coordinating sales, distribution, marketing and other functions;

 

    integrating operating processes and information technology systems; and

 

    preserving the important licensing, distribution, marketing, customer, labor and other relationships of the acquired assets.

In December 2015, we divested of hotel properties and other assets pursuant to the Portfolio Sale. There are numerous risks commonly encountered in divestitures, including, diversion of management’s attention, loss of key employees following such a transaction, difficulties in the separation of operations, services and personnel and damage to existing customer, vendor and other business relationships. In the future, we may divest of additional hotel properties or assets. Any such divestments may yield lower than expected returns. In some circumstances, sales of properties or other assets may result in losses. In addition, sellers typically retain certain liabilities or indemnify buyers for certain matters such as lawsuits, tax liabilities and environmental matters. The magnitude of any such retained liability or indemnification obligation may be difficult to quantify at the time of the transaction, may involve conditions outside our control and ultimately may be material.

We own and operate all of the hotel properties associated with our brands. In the future, we may seek to realize the benefits of franchising and franchise certain of our hotel properties pursuant to agreements with third-party franchisees. We currently do not have experience operating a significant franchising business and expect that the development and implementation of any franchise system will require significant expenditures and could divert management’s attention from other business concerns, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The viability of any franchising business will depend on our ability to establish and maintain good relationships with franchisees. If we enter the franchising business, we may be exposed to additional risks, including, but not limited to, the financial condition and access to capital of franchisees, reputational harm due to the action of franchisees and litigation as a result of disagreements with franchisees.

In the future, we may also seek to build new hotels. We currently do not have significant real estate development experience and expect that commencing a development program, if any, will require significant expenditures and could divert management’s attention from other business concerns, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may be exposed to additional risks, including, but not limited to, access to capital, contractors and materials on favorable economic terms and risks associated with new development and/or construction during an economic downturn.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully identify strategic growth opportunities or complete transactions on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that we will actually realize any anticipated benefits from such transactions. There may be, as applicable, high barriers to entry, including restrictive zoning laws, limited availability of hotel properties and higher costs of land, in many key markets and scarcity of available acquisition, disposition, development, construction or franchise opportunities in desirable locations. Similarly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain financing for developments or acquisitions on attractive terms or at all, or that the ability to obtain such financing will not be restricted by the terms of our current or future indebtedness. In addition, our pairing arrangement may prevent our use of common tax-free

 

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acquisition structures, which may increase the cost and difficulty of acquiring other businesses and hotel properties and inhibit our ability to expand through acquisitions in which consideration other than cash is contemplated.

In addition, any such acquisition, disposition, development, construction or franchising activity could demand significant attention from our management that would otherwise be available for our current ongoing operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our existing or future business.

An increase in the use of third-party internet intermediaries to book online hotel reservations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

For the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 10.7% of our total hotel revenues were booked through third-party internet travel intermediaries and other online travel service providers. These intermediaries primarily focus on leisure travel and also provide offerings for corporate travel and group meetings. Intermediaries use a variety of aggressive online marketing methods to attract customers, including the purchase, by certain companies, of trademarked online keywords such as “Extended Stay” from internet search engines to steer customers toward their websites. These intermediaries hope that consumers will eventually develop brand loyalties to their reservation system rather than to our brands. Accordingly, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed if travel intermediaries succeed in significantly shifting loyalties from our brands to their reservation systems and diverting bookings away from our website or through their fees increasing the overall cost of internet bookings for our hotels.

A failure by our intermediaries to attract or retain their customer bases could lower demand for our hotel rooms and, in turn, reduce our revenues from these distribution channels. Additionally, if bookings by these third-party intermediaries increase, these intermediaries may be able to obtain higher commissions or other significant contract concessions from us, increasing the overall cost of these third-party distribution channels. Increased size and scale resulting from continuing consolidation among third-party intermediaries may increase their pricing power in negotiating commissions and other contract concessions. Some of our distribution agreements with these companies are not exclusive, have a short term, are terminable at will or are subject to early termination provisions. The loss of distributors, increased distribution costs or the renewal of distribution agreements on significantly less favorable terms could adversely impact our business.

We are reliant upon technology and the disruption or malfunction in our information technology systems could materially adversely affect our business.

The lodging industry depends upon the use of sophisticated information technology and systems, including those utilized for reservations, revenue and property management, procurement and operation of administrative systems. For example, we depend on our central reservation system, which allows bookings of hotel rooms directly, via telephone through our call centers, by travel agents, online through our website and through our online reservation partners. We operate third-party systems, making us reliant on third-party service providers, data communication networks and software upgrades, maintenance and support. Many of our information technology systems are outdated and require substantial upgrading. These technologies are costly and are expected to require refinements that may cause disruptions to many of our key information and technology systems. If we are unable to replace or introduce information technology and other systems as quickly as our competitors or within budgeted costs or schedules, or if we are unable to achieve the intended benefits of any new information technology or other systems, including our revenue management system, our results of operations could be adversely affected and our ability to compete effectively could be diminished.

 

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Further, we have from time to time experienced disruptions of these systems, and disruptions of the operation of these systems as a result of failures related to our internal or our service provider systems and support may occur in the future. Information technology systems that we rely upon are also vulnerable to damage or interruption from:

 

    events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist attacks, extreme weather and force majeure events, including earthquakes, tornados, blizzards, hurricanes, fires or floods;

 

    power losses, computer systems failures, internet and telecommunications or data network failures, service provider negligence, improper operation by or supervision of employees, user error, physical and electronic losses of data and similar events; and

 

    computer viruses, cyber attacks, penetration by individuals seeking to disrupt operations or misappropriate information and other breaches of security.

The occurrence of any of these problems at any of our information technology facilities, any of our call centers or any third party service providers could cause significant interruptions or delays in our business or loss of data, or render us unable to process reservations. In addition, if our information technology systems are unable to provide the information communications capacity that we need, or if our information technology systems suffer problems caused by installing system enhancements, we could experience similar failures or interruptions. If our information technology systems fail and our redundant systems or disaster recovery plans are not adequate to address such failures, or if our property and business interruption insurance does not sufficiently compensate us for any losses that we may incur, our revenues and profits could be reduced and the reputation of our brands and our business could be harmed.

Cyber risk and the failure to maintain the integrity of internal or customer data could result in faulty business decisions and harm our reputation or subject us to costs, fines or lawsuits, or limit our ability to accept credit cards.

Our businesses require the collection, transmission and retention of large volumes of internal and customer data, including credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information of our customers, in various information technology systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third parties with whom we contract to provide services. We and our service providers also maintain personally identifiable information about our employees. The integrity and protection of that customer, employee and company data is critical to us. If that data is inaccurate or incomplete, we could make faulty decisions. Further, our customers and employees have a high expectation that we and our service providers will adequately protect their personal information. The information, security and privacy requirements imposed by governmental regulation are increasingly demanding. Our systems may not be able to satisfy these changing requirements and customer and employee expectations, or may require significant additional investments or time in order to do so. Efforts to hack or breach security measures, failures of systems or software to operate as designed or intended, viruses, operator error or inadvertent releases of data all threaten our and our service providers’ information systems and records. Our reliance on computer, internet-based and mobile systems and communications and the frequency and sophistication of efforts by hackers to gain unauthorized access to such systems have increased significantly in recent years. A breach in the security of our information technology systems or those of our service providers could lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems, resulting in operational inefficiencies and a loss of profits. Additionally, a significant theft, loss or misappropriation of, or access to, customers’ or other proprietary data or other breach of our information technology systems could result in fines, legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions, or liability for failure to comply with privacy and information security laws, which could disrupt our operations, damage our reputation and expose us to claims from customers, financial institutions, regulators, payment card associations, employees and other persons, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we are subject to the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (the “PCI DSS”), a set of requirements administered by the Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council, an independent body

 

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created by the major credit card brands, designed to ensure that companies handling credit card information maintain a secure environment. In prior years, we failed to maintain compliance with the PCI DSS and accordingly were subject to monthly penalties imposed by VISA. We are currently in compliance with the PCI DSS. If we fail to maintain PCI DSS compliance, we could become subject to additional penalties or lose our ability to accept credit card payments. As approximately 83.5% of our hotel revenues for the year ended December 31, 2015 were paid by credit card, loss of the ability to accept credit cards for payment would significantly disrupt our operations, would reduce our occupancy levels and would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in privacy laws could adversely affect our ability to market effectively.

We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including telemarketing, email and postal mailings. Restrictions in laws such as the Telemarketing Sales Rule, CAN-SPAM Act and various state laws or new federal laws regarding marketing and solicitation or data protection laws that govern these activities could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of telemarketing, email and postal mailing techniques and could force changes in our marketing strategies. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact the amount and timing of our revenues. In addition, any violation of these laws could result in significant penalties. We also obtain access to potential customers from travel service providers and other companies with whom we have substantial relationships and market to some individuals on these lists directly or by including our marketing message in the other company’s marketing materials. If access to these lists was prohibited or otherwise restricted, our ability to develop new customers and introduce them to our services could be materially impaired.

We are exposed to a variety of risks associated with safety, security and crisis management.

There is a constant need to protect the safety and security of our guests, employees and assets against natural and man-made threats. These threats include, but are not limited to, exceptional events such as extreme weather, civil or political unrest, violence and terrorism, serious and organized crime, fraud, employee dishonesty, cyber crime, fire and day-to-day accidents, incidents and petty crime, which impact the guest or employee experience, could cause loss of life, sickness or injury and result in compensation claims, fines from regulatory bodies, litigation and impact our reputation. Serious incidents or a combination of events could escalate into a crisis, which if managed poorly by us could further expose our brands to reputational damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our hotel properties may contain or develop harmful mold, which could lead to liability for adverse health effects and costs of remediating the problem.

When excessive moisture accumulates in buildings or on building materials, mold growth may occur, particularly if the moisture problem remains undiscovered or is not addressed over a period of time. Some molds may produce airborne toxins or irritants. Exposure to mold may cause a variety of adverse health effects and symptoms, including allergic or other reactions. As a result, the presence of significant mold at any of our hotel properties could require us to undertake a costly remediation program to contain or remove the mold from the affected property. In addition, the presence of significant mold could expose us to liability from our guests, employees and others if property damage or health concerns arise.

Compliance with the laws and regulations that apply to our hotel properties could materially adversely affect our ability to make future developments, acquisitions or renovations, result in significant costs or delays and adversely affect our business strategies.

Our hotels are subject to various local laws and regulatory requirements that address our ability to obtain licenses for our operations. In particular, we are subject to permitting and licensing requirements, which can restrict the use of our hotel properties and increase the cost of development, construction, acquisition, renovation

 

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or operation of our hotels. In addition, federal and state laws and regulations, including laws such as the ADA, impose further restrictions on our operations. Under the ADA, all public accommodations must meet federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. We may be subject to audits or investigations of all of our hotels to determine our compliance. Some of our hotels and other facilities may not be fully compliant with the ADA. If one or more of these facilities is not in compliance with the ADA or any other regulatory requirements, we may be required to incur additional costs to bring the facility into compliance and we might be required to pay damages or governmental fines. In addition, the obligation to make readily achievable accommodations is an ongoing one. Existing requirements may change and future requirements may require us to make significant unanticipated capital expenditures that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and cash flows.

We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding employment.

We are subject to numerous laws and regulations at federal, state, provincial and local levels concerning the employer/employee relationship, including wages, working hours, working conditions, hiring practices and discrimination. Violations of these laws and regulations could affect numerous employees, whose claims might be asserted through class action lawsuits or through government action. Lawsuits of this nature have been instituted against us from time to time, and we cannot assure you that we will not incur substantial damages and expenses resulting from lawsuits of this type or other claims, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in federal, state, local or foreign tax regulation or disputes with tax authorities could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and profitability by increasing our tax or tax compliance costs in the United States and Canada.

The determination of our provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities requires estimations and significant judgments and there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We are subject to taxation at the federal, state or provincial and local levels in the United States and Canada. Our future tax rates could be materially adversely affected by changes in the composition of our earnings in jurisdictions with differing tax rates, changes in the valuation of or valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets and liabilities and substantive changes to tax rules and the application thereof by United States federal, state, local and foreign governments, all of which could result in materially higher corporate taxes than would be incurred under existing tax law or interpretation and could adversely affect our profitability. Further, our determination of our tax liability is always subject to audit and review by applicable domestic and foreign tax authorities. Any adverse outcome of any such audit or review could have an adverse effect on our business and reduce our profits to the extent potential tax liabilities exceed our reserves, and the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may materially affect our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made, as well as future periods.

Increases in ESH REIT’s real estate taxes could materially adversely affect our profitability and ability to pay distributions to our shareholders.

Hotel properties are subject to real and personal property taxes. These taxes may increase as tax rates change and as ESH REIT’s hotel properties continue to be assessed and reassessed by taxing authorities. In particular, ESH REIT’s real estate taxes could increase following acquisitions as acquired properties are reassessed. If real estate taxes continue to increase, our business, financial condition, results of operations and ESH REIT’s ability to make distributions to its shareholders could be materially adversely affected.

Our insurance may not fully compensate us for damage to or losses involving our hotel properties.

We maintain comprehensive insurance on each of our hotel properties, including liability, fire and extended coverage, in the types and amounts we believe are adequate and customary in our industry. Nevertheless, there

 

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are some types of losses, generally of a catastrophic nature, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, terrorist acts or liabilities that result from breaches in the security of our information technology systems, that may be uninsurable or too expensive to justify obtaining insurance. Additionally, market forces beyond our control could limit the scope of insurance coverage that we can obtain or restrict our ability to obtain insurance coverage at reasonable rates. As a result, we may not be successful in obtaining insurance without increases in cost or decreases in coverage levels. We use our discretion in determining amounts, coverage limits and deductibility provisions of insurance, with a view toward obtaining appropriate insurance on our hotel properties at a reasonable cost and on suitable terms. In the event of significant damage or loss, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover the full current market value or replacement value of our investment in a property, and in some cases could result in certain losses being totally uninsured. In addition, inflation, changes in building codes and zoning ordinances, environmental considerations and other factors might make it impossible or impractical to use insurance proceeds to replace or repair a property that has been damaged or destroyed. Under these and other circumstances, insurance proceeds may not be adequate to restore our economic position with respect to a damaged or destroyed property. Accordingly, ESH REIT could lose some or all of the capital it has invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property, and ESH REIT could remain obligated for guarantees, debt or other financial obligations of the property. Our debt instruments contain customary covenants requiring us to maintain insurance. Although we believe that we currently maintain sufficient insurance coverage to satisfy these obligations, there is no assurance that in the future we will be able to procure coverage at a reasonable cost or at all. In addition, there can be no assurance that the lenders under our debt instruments will not take the position that we do not have sufficient insurance coverage and therefore are in breach of these instruments allowing the lenders to declare an event of default and accelerate repayment of debt.

We are dependent upon our ability to attract and retain key officers and other highly qualified personnel.

Our success and our ability to implement our business strategies will depend in large part upon the efforts and skills of our senior management and our ability to attract and retain key officers and other highly qualified personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense. In recent years, we have experienced turnover in several senior management roles and we have focused time and resources on recruiting or promoting from within the new members of our current senior management team. The continued turnover of senior management or the unexpected loss of one or more of our key personnel or any negative public perception with respect to these individuals could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in attracting and retaining qualified personnel. If we lose or suffer an extended interruption in the services of one or more of our key officers, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

Labor shortages could restrict our ability to operate our hotels or implement our business strategies or result in increased labor costs that could reduce our profitability.

Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract, retain, train, manage and engage our employees. Our hotels are staffed 24 hours a day, seven days a week by approximately 8,000 employees around the country. If we are unable to attract, retain, train, manage and engage skilled employees, our ability to manage and staff our hotel properties adequately could be impaired, which could reduce customer satisfaction and harm our reputation. Staffing shortages could also hinder our ability to implement our business strategy. Because payroll costs are a major component of hotel operating expenses and our general and administrative expenses, a shortage of skilled labor could also require higher wages that would increase our labor costs, which could reduce our profitability and limit our ability to pay distributions to shareholders.

Attempts by labor organizations to organize groups of our employees or changes in labor laws could disrupt our operations, increase our labor costs or interfere with the ability of our management to focus on implementing our business strategies.

We may become subject to collective bargaining agreements, similar agreements or regulations enforced by governmental entities in the future. Changes in the federal regulatory scheme could make it easier for unions to

 

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organize groups of our employees. If relationships with our employees or other field personnel deteriorate or become adverse, our hotel properties could experience labor disruptions such as strikes, lockouts and public demonstrations. Additionally, if such changes take effect, our employees or other field personnel could be subject to organizational efforts, which could potentially lead to disruptions or require our management’s time to address unionization issues. Labor regulation could also lead to higher wage and benefit costs, changes in work rules that raise operating expenses and legal costs, and limit our ability to take cost saving measures during economic downturns. These or similar agreements, legislation or changes in regulations could disrupt our operations, hinder our ability to cross-train and cross-promote our employees due to prescribed work rules and job classifications, reduce our profitability or interfere with the ability of our management to focus on executing our business and operating strategies.

Adverse judgments or settlements resulting from legal proceedings in which we may be involved in the normal course of our business could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to operate our business.

In the normal course of our business, we are often involved in various legal proceedings. We cannot predict with certainty the cost of defense, the cost of prosecution or the ultimate outcome of these legal proceedings. Additionally, we could become the subject of future claims by third parties, including guests who use our hotels, our employees, our shareholders, our suppliers and other contractual counterparties or regulators. Any significant adverse determinations, judgments or settlements could reduce our profitability and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations or limit our ability to operate our business. Further, we may incur costs related to claims for which we have appropriate third party indemnity, but such third parties fail to fulfill their contractual obligations. See “Item 3-Legal Proceedings.”

We may be liable for indemnification or similar payments relating to our Company’s predecessor in accordance with the Fifth Amended Plan of Reorganization (the “Plan”), the bankruptcy court’s order confirming the Plan (the “Confirmation Order”), and under certain agreements providing for indemnification in connection with the bankruptcy and/or reorganization of our Company’s predecessor.

We were acquired out of bankruptcy by the Sponsors on October 8, 2010. We may be liable for indemnification or similar payments relating to our Company’s predecessor. Under its constitutive documents, other agreements or applicable law, our Company’s predecessor had obligations to defend, indemnify, reimburse, exculpate, advance fees and expenses, or limit the liabilities of certain officers and employees for certain matters relating to our Company’s predecessor (the “Predecessor Indemnification Obligations”). Under the Plan and the Confirmation Order, we retained Predecessor Indemnification Obligations to those officers and employees who were officers and employees both prior to and after the effective date of the Plan. We may, therefore, face liabilities with respect to such Predecessor Indemnification Obligations. In addition, we may face liabilities arising from a separate agreement providing for Predecessor Indemnification Obligations to a former officer. Currently, certain claims remain outstanding against several of our former officers and employees in litigation brought on behalf of a litigation trust, which could trigger our Predecessor Indemnification Obligations, and new claims may arise in the future against those we have agreed to indemnify. While we believe the likelihood that we will be required to fund any material Predecessor Indemnification Obligations is remote and we are unable to quantify the potential exposure for which we may have to provide indemnification in the future, to the extent that we are required to fund any Predecessor Indemnification Obligations, our results of operations and our liquidity and capital resources could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to ESH REIT and its Status as a REIT

Failure of ESH REIT to qualify as a REIT or remain qualified as a REIT would cause it to be taxed as a regular C corporation, which would expose it to substantial tax liability and substantially reduce the amount of cash available to pay distributions to its shareholders.

ESH REIT elected to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes effective as of October 7, 2010. We believe ESH REIT has been organized and operated in such a manner so as to qualify as a REIT and

 

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ESH REIT currently intends to continue to operate as a REIT. However, qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex provisions of the Code, for which only a limited number of judicial and administrative interpretations exist. The complexity of these provisions is greater in the case of a REIT that owns hotels and leases them to a corporation with which a portion of its stock is paired. As a result, ESH REIT is likely to encounter a greater number of interpretive issues under the REIT qualification rules, and more such issues which lack clear guidance, than are other REITs. Even an inadvertent or technical mistake could jeopardize ESH REIT’s REIT qualification.

In connection with the Offering, August 2014 and November 2015 secondary offerings and May 2015 notes offering , the Company received an opinion that ESH REIT should have qualified as a REIT as of that time. We believe ESH REIT has continued to operate in conformity with the requirements to qualify as a REIT since the November 2015 secondary offering and that ESH REIT continues to satisfy all requirements to maintain its REIT status. One of the requirements unique to our structure is that, in order for ESH REIT to qualify as a REIT, no shareholder may actually or constructively own 10 percent or more of the value of shares of ESH REIT or the Corporation. While we do not regularly monitor share ownership for purposes of this test, in the event that a shareholder crosses the 10-percent threshold, we believe that the excess share provisions of the ESH REIT and Corporation charters should be triggered to reduce the relevant shareholder’s ownership and insulate the Company from risk with respect to this issue.

If ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and no available relief provision applied, it would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on its taxable income at regular corporate rates, and distributions to holders of its stock would not be deductible by it in computing its taxable income. ESH REIT may also be subject to additional state and local taxes if it fails to qualify as a REIT. Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for investment, debt service and distribution to holders of its stock, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on the value and market price of our Paired Shares. To the extent that distributions to shareholders by ESH REIT have been made on the belief that ESH REIT qualified as a REIT, ESH REIT might be required to borrow funds or to liquidate certain of its investments to pay the applicable tax. If, for any reason, ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be subject to a material tax liability and unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify, which would materially adversely affect our business, cash flows and operating strategies and the market value of our Paired Shares.

Failure to qualify as a REIT could result from a number of factors, including, without limitation:

 

    the leases of ESH REIT’s hotels to the Corporation are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes;

 

    rents received from the Corporation are treated as rents received from a “related party tenant”;

 

    ESH REIT is not respected as an entity separate from the Corporation or the REIT qualification tests are applied to ESH REIT on a combined basis with the Corporation; or

 

    failure to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements due to restrictions under ESH REIT’s indebtedness.

In addition, if ESH REIT fails to qualify as a REIT, it will no longer be required to make distributions as a condition to REIT qualification and all of its distributions to holders of its common stock, after payment of corporate level tax as noted above, would be taxable as regular C corporation dividends to the extent of ESH REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits. Thus, if ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT, dividends paid to ESH REIT’s shareholders currently taxed as individuals would be qualified dividend income, currently taxed at preferential rates, and ESH REIT’s shareholders currently taxed as corporations (including the Corporation) would be entitled to the dividends received deduction with respect to such dividends, subject in each case to applicable limitations under the Code. As a result of all these factors, ESH REIT’s failure to qualify as a REIT would impair our business, cash flows, operating strategies and materially adversely affect the market price of our Paired Shares.

 

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If rents received by ESH REIT from the Corporation are treated as rent received from a “related party tenant,” ESH REIT will fail to qualify as a REIT.

To qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs, ESH REIT must not own, actually or constructively (by virtue of certain attribution provisions of the Code), 10% or more (by vote or value) of the stock of any corporate lessee or 10% or more of the assets or net profits of any non-corporate lessee (a “related party tenant”). The Corporation will be treated as a related party tenant for purposes of the gross income tests if ESH REIT owns, actually or constructively (by virtue of certain attribution provisions of the Code), 10% or more of the stock (by vote or value) of the Corporation. The Corporation does not believe that it is a related party tenant of ESH REIT.

However, events beyond our knowledge or control could result in a shareholder, including an investor in the Sponsors or the Sponsors’ funds, owning or being deemed to own 10% or more of the paired common stock. The ownership attribution rules that apply for purposes of the 10% threshold are complex and may cause the outstanding shares owned by a group of related individuals or entities to be deemed to be constructively owned by one individual or entity. As a result, for instance, the acquisition of less than 10% of the outstanding paired common stock (or the acquisition of an interest in an entity which owns paired common stock) by an individual or entity could cause that individual or entity to be treated as owning in excess of 10% of ESH REIT. In addition, a person may be treated as owning 10% or more of the value of stock of ESH REIT by virtue of owning an interest in an entity other than a Sponsor-managed fund that owns an interest in ESH REIT. Although ESH REIT intends to make timely annual demands of certain shareholders of record to disclose the beneficial owners of Shares issued in their name, as required by the Treasury Regulations, monitoring actual or constructive ownership of the Shares, including by investors in the Sponsors, on a continuous basis is not feasible. The charters of the Corporation and ESH REIT contain restrictions on the amount of shares of stock of either entity so that no person can own, actually or constructively (by virtue of certain attribution provisions of the Code), more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of any class or series of stock of either ESH REIT or the Corporation. The Class A common stock of ESH REIT and the 125 shares of preferred stock of ESH REIT are not subject to the 9.8% ownership limitation under the charter of ESH REIT. However, given the breadth of the Code’s constructive ownership rules and the fact that it is not feasible for ESH REIT and the Corporation to continuously monitor actual and constructive ownership of paired common stock, there can be no assurance that such restrictions will be effective in preventing any person from actually or constructively acquiring 9.8% or more of the outstanding shares of any class or series of stock of the Corporation or ESH REIT. If the Corporation were treated as a “related party tenant” of ESH REIT, ESH REIT would not be able to satisfy either of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs and would fail to qualify for REIT status. If ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be subject to a material tax liability and unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify. In addition, it is unlikely ESH REIT would avail itself of certain relief provisions under the Code customarily available to a REIT that has failed to satisfy a REIT requirement but wants to retain its REIT status. If a REIT fails to satisfy either of the two gross income requirements, such relief provisions require payment of a punitive tax in an amount equal to 100% of the estimated profits of the REIT attributable to the amount of gross income by which the REIT failed the gross income tests. Since substantially all of ESH REIT’s gross income is generated by rent paid pursuant to the operating leases with the Corporation, substantially all of ESH REIT’s total profits could become subject to such 100% tax under such relief provisions of the Code if this rent failed to qualify under the two gross income tests. In that event, ESH REIT would not likely pursue any of the relief provisions available to REITs under certain provisions of the Code.

 

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Our structure has been infrequently utilized by public companies and has not been employed by a public company since a similar structure was employed by a public company in 2006, and the IRS could challenge ESH REIT’s qualification as a REIT.

Our structure has been infrequently utilized by public companies and has not been employed by a public company since a similar structure was employed by a public company in 2006, and there is little guidance on the tax treatment of a paired share arrangement. Section 269B of the Code provides that the determination of whether an entity qualifies as a REIT must be made on a combined basis if the entity is “stapled” to another entity. ESH REIT and the Corporation will be considered “stapled entities” if more than 50% of the value of the beneficial ownership of shares of ESH REIT is paired with the shares of the Corporation. We believe that the value of the Class B common stock does not represent more than 50% of the value of all of the shares of stock of ESH REIT and, accordingly, that ESH REIT and the Corporation are not “stapled entities” for purposes of Section 269B of the Code. If ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT under this rule and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be subject to a material tax liability and unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify. Additionally, the IRS could challenge the REIT status of ESH REIT on the basis that the Class B common stock is not freely transferrable. Such assertion, if successful, would result in the loss of ESH REIT’s REIT status. If ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT under this rule and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be subject to a material tax liability and unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify. Finally, the IRS could also assert that the Corporation should be treated as owning all of the common stock of ESH REIT. If upheld, such an assertion would effectively eliminate the benefit of REIT status for ESH REIT. We did not seek an advance ruling from the IRS regarding ESH REIT’s qualification as a REIT.

The ownership limits that apply to REITs, as prescribed by the Code and by ESH REIT’s charter, may inhibit market activity in our Paired Shares and restrict our business combination opportunities.

In order for ESH REIT to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, not more than 50% in value of the outstanding shares of its stock may be owned, beneficially or constructively, by five or fewer individuals, as defined in the Code to include certain entities, at any time during the last half of each taxable year after the first year for which it elected to qualify to be taxed as a REIT. Subject to certain exceptions, ESH REIT’s charter authorizes its Board of Directors to take such actions as are necessary and desirable to preserve its qualification to be taxed as a REIT. ESH REIT’s charter also provides that, unless exempted by the Board of Directors, no person may own more than 9.8% of the outstanding shares of any class or series of its stock. The constructive ownership rules are complex and may cause shares of stock owned directly or constructively (by virtue of certain attribution provisions of the Code) by a group of related individuals or entities to be constructively owned by one individual or entity. These ownership limits could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in control of us that might involve a premium price for our Paired Shares or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders.

If ESH REIT’s leases with the Corporation are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, ESH REIT would fail to qualify as a REIT.

To qualify as a REIT, ESH REIT is required to satisfy two gross income tests, pursuant to which specified percentages of its gross income must be passive income, such as rent. For the rent paid pursuant to the operating leases with the Corporation, which generates substantially all of ESH REIT’s gross income, to constitute qualifying rental income for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and must not be treated as service contracts, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. ESH REIT has structured the leases, and intends to structure any future leases, so that the leases will be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, but there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge this treatment or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the leases were not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, ESH REIT would not be able to satisfy either of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs and would fail to qualify for REIT status. If ESH REIT failed to qualify as a REIT and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be subject to a material tax liability and unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify.

 

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If rents received by ESH REIT from the Corporation do not reflect arm’s-length terms, the IRS could seek to recharacterize the rents.

The rates of rent payable by the Corporation to ESH REIT under the operating leases are intended to reflect arm’s-length terms. However, transfer pricing is an inherently subjective matter, and the IRS could, under Section 482 of the Code, assert that the rates of rent between the Corporation and ESH REIT do not reflect arm’s-length terms. If the IRS was successful in asserting that the rates of rent were not on arm’s-length terms, it could adversely impact our REIT qualification, our effective tax rate and our income tax liability.

Our principal Operating Lessee was recently subject to an audit by the Internal Revenue Service.

In February 2014, we received notice that the Company’s principal Operating Lessee would be subject to an audit by the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) with respect to its 2011 taxable year, during which it was a taxable REIT subsidiary of ESH REIT. In November 2014, the IRS completed this audit and issued a no change letter. Despite this favorable outcome and the fact that this Operating Lessee ceased to be a taxable REIT subsidiary of ESH REIT in 2013, the IRS may choose to audit subsequent taxable years for this Operating Lessee, or audit other open years for other taxpayers. The IRS has conducted audits of other lodging REITs and their taxable REIT subsidiaries, and in at least three cases has focused on the transfer pricing aspects of the hotel leases between the REIT and its taxable REIT subsidiaries. While we believe that our rent provisions reflect arm’s-length terms, there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree in any potential audit.

ESH REIT has a limited operating history as a publicly traded REIT and may not be successful in operating as a publicly traded REIT, which may adversely affect its ability to make distributions to its shareholders.

ESH REIT has a limited operating history as a publicly traded REIT. The REIT rules and regulations are highly technical and complex. ESH REIT cannot assure you that its management team’s past experience will be sufficient to successfully operate ESH REIT as a publicly traded REIT, implement appropriate operating and investment policies and comply with Code or Treasury Regulations that are applicable to it. Failure to comply with the income, asset and other requirements imposed by the REIT rules and regulations could prevent ESH REIT from qualifying as a REIT and could force it to pay unexpected taxes and penalties, which may adversely affect its ability to make distributions to its shareholders.

Even if ESH REIT continues to qualify as a REIT, it may face other tax liabilities that could reduce our cash flows.

Even if ESH REIT continues to qualify for taxation as a REIT, it may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on its income and assets including, but not limited to, taxes on any undistributed income and property and transfer taxes. In order to maintain its status as a REIT, each year ESH REIT must distribute to holders of its common stock at least 90% of its REIT taxable income, determined before the deductions for distributions paid and excluding any net capital gain. To the extent that ESH REIT satisfies this distribution requirement, but distributes less than 100% of its taxable income and net capital gain, it will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its undistributed REIT taxable income and net capital gain. In addition, ESH REIT will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that it pays out to holders of its common stock in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under the Code. ESH REIT intends to distribute its taxable income to the extent necessary to optimize its tax efficiency including, but not limited to, maintaining its REIT status, while retaining sufficient capital for its ongoing needs. ESH REIT will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on its undistributed REIT taxable income and net capital gain and may be subject to U.S. federal excise tax. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distributions to holders of its common stock, and lower cash distributions could adversely affect the market price of our Paired Shares.

 

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The REIT distribution requirements could materially adversely affect ESH REIT’s liquidity and may force ESH REIT to borrow funds or sell assets during unfavorable market conditions or make taxable distributions of its capital stock.

In order to meet the REIT distribution requirements and avoid the payment of income and excise taxes, ESH REIT may need to borrow funds on a short-term basis or sell assets, even if the then-prevailing market conditions are not favorable for these borrowings or asset sales. ESH REIT’s cash flows may be insufficient to fund required REIT distributions as a result of differences in timing between the actual receipt of income and the recognition of income for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or the effect of non-deductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt service obligations or amortization payments. The insufficiency of ESH REIT’s cash flows to cover its distribution requirements could have a material adverse effect on its ability to incur additional indebtedness or sell equity securities in order to fund distributions required to maintain its qualification as a REIT.

ESH REIT may from time to time make distributions to its shareholders in the form of its taxable stock dividends, which could result in shareholders incurring tax liability without receiving sufficient cash to pay such tax.

Although it has no current intention to do so, ESH REIT may in the future distribute taxable stock dividends to its shareholders in the form of additional shares of its stock. ESH REIT might distribute additional shares of its Class A common stock, shares of Class B common stock and/or shares of its preferred stock to the Corporation and/or shares of its Class B common stock to the holders of its Class B common stock. Taxable shareholders receiving such dividends will be required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income to the extent of ESH REIT’s current and accumulated earnings and profits for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, shareholders may be required to pay income taxes with respect to such dividends in excess of the cash distributions received. If a U.S. shareholder sells ESH REIT common or preferred shares that it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of our Paired Shares at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to certain non-U.S. shareholders, ESH REIT may be required to withhold U.S. federal income tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in its common stock.

Dividends paid by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

Certain dividends known as qualified dividends payable to U.S. shareholders that are individuals, trusts or estates currently are subject to the same tax rates as long-term capital gains, which are significantly lower than the maximum rates for ordinary income. Dividends paid by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for such reduced rates. Although these rules do not adversely affect the taxation of REITs, the more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends could cause investors who are individuals, trusts and estates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends, which could adversely affect the value of the shares of REITs and our Paired Shares.

Applicable REIT laws may restrict certain business activities and increase our overall tax liability.

As a REIT, ESH REIT is subject to various restrictions on the types of income it can earn, assets it can own and activities in which it can engage. Business activities that could be impacted by applicable REIT laws include, but are not limited to, activities such as developing alternative uses of real estate, including the development, construction and/or sale of hotel properties. Due to these restrictions, we anticipate that we will conduct certain business activities, including those mentioned above, through the Corporation. The Corporation is taxable as a regular C corporation and is subject to U.S. federal, state, local and, if applicable, foreign taxation on its taxable income. To qualify as a REIT, ESH REIT must satisfy certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, shareholder ownership and other requirements on an ongoing basis. In order to meet these tests, ESH REIT may be required to forego investments it might otherwise make. Thus, ESH REIT’s compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our business and operating strategies, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.

The REIT provisions of the Code substantially limit ESH REIT’s ability to hedge its assets and liabilities. Any income from a hedging transaction that ESH REIT enters into primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations, to manage risk of interest rate changes with respect to borrowings made or to be made to acquire or carry real estate assets, or to partially or completely terminate previous hedges that are no longer serving as hedges, does not constitute “gross income” for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests that apply to REITs, provided that certain identification requirements are met. To the extent that ESH REIT enters into other types of hedging transactions or fails to properly identify such transaction as a hedge, the income is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of both of the gross income tests. As a result of these rules, ESH REIT may be required to limit its use of advantageous hedging techniques or implement those hedges through a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”). This could increase the cost of ESH REIT’s hedging activities because its TRS may be subject to tax on gains or expose ESH REIT to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than it would otherwise choose to bear. In addition, losses in a TRS will generally not provide any tax benefit, except that such losses could theoretically be carried back or forward against past or future taxable income in the TRS.

The application of FIRPTA to non-U.S. holders of Class B common stock of ESH REIT is not clear.

A non-U.S. person disposing of a U.S. real property interest (“USRPI”), including shares of a U.S. corporation whose assets consist principally of USRPIs, is generally subject to tax under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (“FIRPTA”), on the gain recognized on the disposition, in which case they would also be required to file U.S. tax returns with respect to such gain. FIRPTA does not apply, however, to the disposition of stock in a REIT if the REIT is a “domestically controlled REIT.” We intend to take the position that ESH REIT is a domestically controlled REIT under the Code. There can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge this treatment or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. Under recent legislation, however, a publically traded REIT is permitted to treat all owners of 5% or less of its stock as U.S. persons unless it has actual knowledge to the contrary. If ESH REIT were to fail to qualify as a “domestically controlled REIT,” gains realized by a non-U.S. holder on a sale of Class B common stock would be subject to tax under FIRPTA unless the Class B common stock was regularly traded on an established securities market (such as the NYSE) and the non-U.S. holder (other than a qualified foreign pension fund, as defined in Section 897(1)(2) of the Code (a “Qualified Foreign Pension Fund”), or any entity all of the interests of which are held by a Qualified Foreign Pension Fund) did not at any time during a specified testing period directly or indirectly own more than 10% of the value of the outstanding Class B common stock. While there is no authority addressing whether a component of a paired interest will be considered to be regularly traded on an established securities market by virtue of the paired interest being considered to be regularly traded on an established securities market, we intend to take the position that the Class B common stock of ESH REIT is traded on an established securities market.

Non-U.S. holders of Class B common stock of ESH REIT may be subject to tax under FIRPTA on distributions.

Non-U.S. holders of Class B common stock may incur tax on distributions that are attributable to gain from a sale or exchange of a USRPI by ESH REIT under FIRPTA. A USRPI includes certain interests in real property and stock in corporations at least 50% of whose assets consist of USRPIs. Under FIRPTA, a non-U.S. shareholder is taxed on distributions attributable to gain from sales of USRPIs as if such gain were effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. shareholder, in which case they would also be required to file U.S. tax returns with respect to such gains. A non-U.S. shareholder thus would be taxed on such a distribution at the normal capital gains rates applicable to U.S. shareholders, subject to applicable alternative minimum tax and a special alternative minimum tax in the case of a nonresident alien individual. A non-U.S. corporate shareholder not entitled to treaty relief or exemption also may be subject to the 30% branch profits tax on such a distribution.

 

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If the Class B common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States, capital gain distributions on the Class B common stock that are attributable to ESH REIT’s sale of real property will be treated as ordinary dividends rather than as gain from the sale of a USRPI as long as the non-U.S. shareholder did not own more than 10% of the Class B common stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution. As a result, non-U.S. shareholders generally will be subject to withholding tax on such capital gain distributions in the same manner as they are subject to withholding tax on ordinary dividends. As noted above, we intend to take the position that the Class B common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States. If the Class B common stock is not considered to be regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States or the non-U.S. shareholder owned more than 10% of the Class B common stock at any time during the one-year period preceding the distribution, capital gain distributions that are attributable to ESH REIT’s sale of real property would be subject to tax under FIRPTA, as described in the preceding paragraph. In such case, ESH REIT must withhold 35% of any distribution that ESH REIT could designate as a capital gain dividend. A non-U.S. shareholder may receive a credit against its tax liability for the amount ESH REIT withholds. Moreover, if a non-U.S. shareholder disposes of ESH REIT common stock during the 30-day period preceding a distribution payment, and such non-U.S. shareholder (or a person related to such non-U.S. shareholder) acquires or enters into a contract or option to acquire the Class B common stock within 61 days of the first day of the 30-day period described above, and any portion of such distribution payment would, but for the disposition, be treated as a USRPI capital gain to such non-U.S. shareholder, then such non-U.S. shareholder shall be treated as having USRPI capital gain in an amount that, but for the disposition, would have been treated as USRPI capital gain.

Qualified Foreign Pension Funds are not subject to tax (including withholding tax) under FIRPTA with respect to distributions attributable to gain from sale or exchange of a USRPI.

Risks Related to the Corporation

The Corporation is subject to tax at regular corporate rates.

The Corporation is subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on its taxable income at regular corporate rates, and distributions to holders of Corporation common stock are not deductible by it in computing its taxable income. In calculating its taxable income, the Corporation must include as income any distributions received from ESH REIT. Distributions to holders of Corporation common stock are taxable as dividends to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits. Distributions paid by the Corporation to noncorporate U.S. shareholders that constitute qualified dividend income will be taxable to the shareholder at the preferential rates applicable to long-term capital gains provided the shareholder meets certain holding period requirements. Distributions in excess of the Corporation’s current and accumulated earnings and profits would generally be considered a return of capital for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent of the holder’s adjusted tax basis in their shares. A return of capital is not taxable, but it has the effect of reducing the holder’s adjusted tax basis in their shares. If distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of a holder’s shares, they will be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of such stock.

The application of FIRPTA could adversely affect non-U.S. holders of our Paired Shares.

The Corporation is expected to be a United States real property holding corporation under the Code. As a result, under FIRPTA, certain non-U.S. holders of Corporation common stock may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain from the disposition of such stock, in which case they would also be required to file U.S. tax returns with respect to such gain. Whether these FIRPTA provisions apply depends on the amount of Corporation common stock that such non-U.S. holder holds and whether, at the time they dispose of their shares, Corporation common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market (such as the NYSE) within the meaning of the applicable Treasury Regulations. While there is no authority addressing whether a component of a paired interest will be considered to be traded on an established securities market by virtue of the paired interest being considered to be traded on an established securities market, we intend to take the position that the common stock

 

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of the Corporation is traded on an established securities market. So long as the Corporation common stock is regularly traded as noted above, only a non-U.S. holder who has held, actually or constructively, more than 10% of the Corporation’s common stock at any time during the applicable testing period may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the disposition of such common stock under FIRPTA. In addition, a separate valuation of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT and common stock of the Corporation may not be available. As a result, the portion of any gain on the disposition of a Paired Share that is attributable to shares of common stock of the Corporation, and subject to FIRPTA, may be difficult to determine. Qualified Foreign Pension Funds are not subject to tax (including withholding tax) under FIRPTA with respect to gain from the disposition of stock in a real property holding corporation.

If ESH REIT was to lose its REIT status, it could materially adversely affect the Corporation, and therefore materially adversely affect the Company.

The Corporation will receive a substantial portion of its income in the form of distributions from ESH REIT. If ESH REIT was not treated as a REIT, it would be subject to U.S. federal income tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on its taxable income at regular corporate rates, and distributions to holders of its stock, including the Corporation, would not be deductible by it in computing its taxable income. Any such corporate tax liability could be substantial and would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to holders of its stock, including the Corporation, and would likely reduce the value of the ESH REIT Class A common stock held by the Corporation, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on the value of the Corporation’s common stock and our Paired Shares. See “—Risks Related to ESH REIT and its Status as a REIT.”

Risks Related to our Paired Shares

If our stock price fluctuates, you could lose a significant part of your investment.

The market price of our Paired Shares may be influenced by many factors including:

 

    announcements of new hotels or services or significant price reductions by us or our competitors;

 

    changes in tax law or interpretations thereof;

 

    the failure of securities analysts to cover our Paired Shares or changes in analysts’ financial estimates;

 

    variations in quarterly results of operations compared to market expectations;

 

    default on our indebtedness or foreclosure of our hotel properties;

 

    economic, legal and regulatory factors unrelated to our performance;

 

    increased competition;

 

    future sales of our Paired Shares or the perception that such sales may occur;

 

    investor perceptions of us and the lodging industry;

 

    events beyond our control, such as war, terrorist attacks, travel-related health concerns, transportation and fuel prices, travel-related accidents, natural disasters and severe weather; and

 

    the other factors listed in this “Risk Factors” section.

As a result of these factors, investors in Paired Shares may not be able to resell their Paired Shares at or above their purchase price. In addition, our stock price has been, and may continue to be, volatile. The stock market in general, and in the lodging industry in particular, has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of market participants. Accordingly, these broad market and industry factors may significantly reduce the market price of our Paired Shares, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion

 

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of management’s attention, which could adversely impact our business. Any adverse determination in litigation could also subject us to significant liabilities.

Certain of our shareholders each beneficially own a substantial amount of our Paired Shares and have substantial control over us and their interests may conflict with or differ from your interests as a shareholder.

Affiliates of the Sponsors collectively beneficially own 62.5% of our Paired Shares, with no individual entity owning, actually or constructively, more than 9.8% as provided in the respective charters of the Corporation and ESH REIT. Accordingly, the Corporation is a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE rules. ESH REIT is a “controlled company” by virtue of its ownership by the Corporation, regardless of the Sponsors’ ownership. In addition, four directors of the Corporation and three directors of ESH REIT were designated by the Sponsors pursuant to the shareholders agreement between the Corporation, ESH REIT and the Sponsors. Further, the Sponsors are entitled to consent rights on specified matters pursuant to the shareholders agreement. As a result, the Sponsors are able to exert a significant degree of influence or actual control over our management and affairs and over matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors, a merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets and other significant business or corporate transactions. These shareholders may have interests that are different from yours and may vote in a way with which you disagree and which may be adverse to your interests. In addition, this concentration of ownership could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control or otherwise discouraging a potential acquirer from attempting to obtain control of us, which could cause the market price of our Paired Shares to decline or prevent our shareholders from realizing a premium over the market price for their Paired Shares.

Additionally, each of the Sponsors is in the business of making investments in companies and may acquire and hold, and in a few instances have acquired and currently hold, interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. One or more of the Sponsors may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. The Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s charters provide that none of the Sponsors, any of their affiliates or any director who is not employed by us or his or her affiliates have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate.

Future sales or the possibility of future sales of a substantial amount of our Paired Shares may depress the price of our Paired Shares.

Future sales or the availability for sale of substantial amounts of our Paired Shares in the public market could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our Paired Shares and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities. We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our Paired Shares or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of our Paired Shares by us or our Sponsors will have on the market price of our Paired Shares. Sales of substantial amounts of our Paired Shares by the Sponsors have, and the perception that such sales could occur may, adversely affect prevailing market prices for our Paired Shares.

The charters of the Corporation and ESH REIT authorize us to issue 3,500,000,000 Paired Shares, of which 204,593,912 Paired Shares are outstanding as of February 19, 2016. Of these shares, the 71,637,500 Paired Shares sold in the Offering and subsequent secondary offerings are freely transferable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act by persons other than “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. The Sponsors currently own 127,960,388 Paired Shares collectively, all of which have been registered pursuant to the automatic shelf registration statement that we filed in June 2015, and have additional rights with respect to the remainder of their Paired Shares.

We may issue Paired Shares or other securities from time to time as consideration for future acquisitions and investments. If any such acquisition or investment is significant, the number of Paired Shares, or the number or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of other securities that we may issue may in turn be substantial. We may also grant registration rights covering those Paired Shares or other securities in connection with any such acquisitions and investments.

 

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We have also filed a registration statement on Form S-8 covering 8,000,000 Paired Shares in connection with our employee benefit plans.

Under our equity incentive plans, the granting entity will need to compensate the non-granting entity for the issuance of its component share of our Paired Shares.

The Amended and Restated Extended Stay America, Inc. Long-Term Incentive Plan and the Amended and Restated ESH Hospitality, Inc. Long-Term Incentive Plan (each an “LTIP”) contemplate grants of Paired Shares to employees, officers and directors of the Corporation and ESH REIT (each a “Granting Entity”), as applicable. Each Granting Entity makes awards to eligible participants under its respective LTIP in respect of Paired Shares, subject to the non-Granting Entity’s approval of the terms of each award made under the Granting Entity’s LTIP, and the non-Granting Entity’s agreement to issue its component of our Paired Share (i.e., with respect to the Corporation, a share of common stock, and with respect to ESH REIT, a share of Class B common stock) to the grantee at the time of delivery of its component of our Paired Share.

The Granting Entity will compensate the non-Granting Entity generally in cash for its issuance of its component of our Paired Share for the fair market value at the time of issuance. In some cases, the applicable Granting Entity may have to pay more for a share of the non-Granting Entity than it would have otherwise paid at the time of grant as the result of an increase in the value of a Paired Share between the time of grant and the time of exercise or settlement. In addition, the Corporation may need to acquire additional shares of Class A common stock of ESH REIT at the time of issuance of the shares of Class B common stock of ESH REIT in order to maintain its 55% ownership interest in ESH REIT.

Under the LTIPs, a grant of restricted stock units results in the recognition of total compensation expense equal to the grant date fair value of such grant. Compensation expense related to a grant is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of each grant. As it relates to the Company’s financial statements, with respect to grants issued to directors of ESH REIT, such compensation expense is recognized over the service period on a mark-to-market basis each period rather than on a straight-line basis.

If our operating and financial performance in any given period does not meet the guidance that we provide to the public, our stock price may decline.

We provide public guidance on our expected operating and financial results for future periods. Any such guidance will be comprised of forward-looking statements subject to the risks and uncertainties described in this combined annual report on Form 10-K and in our other public filings and statements. Our actual results may not always be in line with or exceed any guidance we have provided, especially in times of economic uncertainty. If, in the future, our operating or financial results for a particular period do not meet any guidance we provide or the expectations of investment analysts or if we reduce our guidance for future periods, as we have in the past, the market price of our Paired Shares may decline.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about Extended Stay America, or if they issue unfavorable commentary about us, or our industry, or downgrade our Paired Shares, the price of our Paired Shares could decline.

The trading market for our Paired Shares depends in part on the research and reports that third-party securities analysts publish about Extended Stay America and the lodging industry. One or more analysts could downgrade, and in the past have downgraded, our Paired Shares or issue other negative commentary about Extended Stay America or our industry. In addition, we may be unable or slow to maintain and attract additional research coverage. Alternatively, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of Extended Stay America, we could lose visibility in the market. As a result of one or more of these factors, the trading price of our Paired Shares could decline.

 

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Delaware law and our organizational documents may impede or discourage a takeover, which could deprive our shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their Paired Shares.

The Corporation and ESH REIT are Delaware corporations, and the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law impose various impediments to the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing shareholders. In addition, provisions of the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s charters and bylaws may make it more difficult for, or prevent a third party from, acquiring control of us without the approval of our Boards of Directors. These provisions include, among others:

 

    the ability of our Boards of Directors to designate one or more series of preferred stock and issue shares of preferred stock without shareholder approval;

 

    actions by shareholders may not be taken by written consent, except that any action required or permitted to be taken by our shareholders may be effected by written consent until such time as the Sponsors cease to own 50% or more of the outstanding Paired Shares;

 

    the sole power of a majority of the Boards of Directors to fix the number of directors;

 

    advance notice requirements for nominating directors or introducing other business to be conducted at shareholder meetings, provided that such notice will not be applicable to the Sponsors so long as they own at least 50% of the outstanding Paired Shares;

 

    the limited ability of shareholders to call special meetings while the Sponsors own at least 50% of the outstanding Paired Shares; and

 

    the affirmative supermajority vote of our shareholders to amend anti-takeover provisions in our charters and bylaws.

The foregoing factors, as well as the significant ownership of Paired Shares by the Sponsors, and certain covenant restrictions under our indebtedness could impede a merger, takeover or other business combination or discourage a potential investor from making a tender offer for our Paired Shares, which, under certain circumstances, could reduce the market price of our Paired Shares.

The Corporation and ESH REIT may each issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our Paired Shares, which could depress the price of our Paired Shares.

The Corporation has 21,202 shares of 8.0% voting preferred stock outstanding. ESH REIT has 125 shares of 12.5% preferred stock outstanding. The Corporation’s charter authorizes the Corporation to issue up to 350,000,000 shares of one or more additional series of preferred stock. ESH REIT’s charter authorizes ESH REIT to issue up to 350,000,000 shares of one or more additional series of preferred stock. The Boards of Directors of the Corporation and ESH REIT will have the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by shareholders. Preferred stock could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our Paired Shares. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discouraging bids for our Paired Shares at a premium over the market price and adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our Paired Shares.

ESH REIT may be subject to adverse legislative or regulatory tax changes that could adversely affect the market price of our Paired Shares.

At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended. We cannot predict when or if any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation, or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective and any such law, regulation, or interpretation may take effect retroactively. ESH REIT, the Corporation and holders of Class B common stock

 

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could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, which could effectively eliminate our structure, and in turn, adversely affect the market price of our Paired Shares.

There is a possibility that there will be amendments to or elimination of the pairing arrangement.

Each share of common stock of the Corporation is attached to and trades together with the Class B common stock of ESH REIT. Under the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s charters, each of the respective Board of Directors may modify or eliminate this pairing arrangement without the consent of its respective shareholders at any time if that Board of Directors no longer deems it in the best interests of the Corporation or ESH REIT, as the case may be, for their shares to continue to be attached and trade together. With respect to such determination, the respective board must fulfill at all times its respective fiduciary duties and, therefore, it is not possible to predict at this time the circumstances under which the respective board would terminate the pairing arrangement. In addition, holders of Paired Shares have the option, by the vote of a majority of our Paired Shares then outstanding, to eliminate the pairing arrangement in accordance with the respective charters of the Corporation and ESH REIT. The pairing arrangement will be automatically terminated upon bankruptcy of either of the Corporation or ESH REIT.

The Corporation and ESH REIT each have the right, at their option and without the consent of the holders of our Paired Shares, to acquire shares of Class B common stock of ESH REIT from the holders of such shares in exchange for cash, securities of the Corporation or ESH REIT, as the case may be, and/or any other property with a fair market value, as determined by a valuation firm or investment bank, at least equal to the fair market value of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT being exchanged. The Corporation and ESH REIT each have the right, at their option and without the consent of the holders of our Paired Shares, to acquire shares of the Corporation’s common stock from the holders of such shares in exchange for cash, securities of the Corporation or ESH REIT, as the case may be, and/or any other property with a fair market value, as determined by a valuation firm or investment bank, at least equal to the fair market value of the Corporation’s common stock being exchanged. Holders of our Paired Shares could be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the exchange of shares of Class B common stock of ESH REIT or shares of common stock of the Corporation and may not receive cash to pay the tax from the Corporation or ESH REIT.

After any such acquisition, shares of the Corporation’s common stock may be paired with shares of Class B common stock of ESH REIT in a different proportion, but such shares will continue to be attached and trade together. Further, the Corporation’s charter and ESH REIT’s charter allow the respective Boards of Directors of the Corporation and ESH REIT to, in their sole discretion, issue unpaired shares of their capital stock. Trading in unpaired shares of the Corporation or ESH REIT may reduce the liquidity or value of our Paired Shares. The Class A common stock of ESH REIT owned by the Corporation is also freely transferable and if transferred, the transferee will hold unpaired shares of common stock of ESH REIT.

ESH REIT’s Board of Directors could terminate its status as a REIT, subjecting ESH REIT’s taxable income to U.S. federal income taxation, which would increase its liabilities for taxes.

Under ESH REIT’s charter, its Board of Directors may terminate its REIT status, without the consent of its shareholders, at any time if the board no longer deems it in the best interests of ESH REIT to continue to qualify under the Code as a REIT, subject to the Sponsors’ consent rights pursuant to the shareholders agreement between the Corporation, ESH REIT and the Sponsors. Circumstances that the board may consider in making such a determination may include, for example:

 

    the enactment of new legislation that would significantly reduce or eliminate the benefits of being a REIT or having a paired share arrangement;

 

    to facilitate a transaction whose benefits outweigh the benefits of maintaining ESH REIT’s status as a REIT; or

 

    ESH REIT no longer being able to satisfy the REIT requirements.

 

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With respect to this determination, ESH REIT’s board must fulfill at all times its fiduciary duties and, therefore, it is not possible to predict at this time the circumstances under which the board would terminate ESH REIT’s status as a REIT.

If ESH REIT’s status as a REIT is terminated, its taxable income will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation (including any applicable alternative minimum tax) at regular corporate rates. If ESH REIT’s status was terminated and it was not entitled to relief under certain Code provisions, it would be unable to elect REIT status for the four taxable years following the year during which it ceased to so qualify.

The requirements of being a public company, including compliance with the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the NYSE, may strain our resources, increase our costs and divert management’s attention, and we may be unable to comply with these requirements in a timely or cost-effective manner.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the corporate governance standards of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the NYSE. These requirements place a strain on our management, systems and resources. The Exchange Act requires us to file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition within specified time periods and to prepare proxy statements with respect to the annual meetings of shareholders of the Corporation and ESH REIT. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting. The NYSE requires that we comply with various corporate governance requirements. To comply with the Exchange Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act and NYSE requirements, significant resources and management oversight are required. This requires significant management attention and significant costs associated with compliance, which could have a material adverse effect on us and the price of our Paired Shares. Advocacy efforts by shareholders and third parties may also prompt even more changes in governance and reporting requirements. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of these costs.

We are exposed to risks relating to evaluations of our internal controls required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results. We are required to provide reliable financial statements and reports to our shareholders. To monitor the accuracy and reliability of our financial reporting, we have established an internal audit function that oversees our internal controls. In addition, we have developed policies and procedures with respect to company-wide business processes and cycles in order to implement effective internal control over financial reporting. We have established controls and procedures designed to ensure that total hotel revenues and hotel operating expenses are properly recorded at our hotels. While we have undertaken substantial work to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in maintaining effective internal control over our financial reporting and may determine in the future that our existing internal controls need improvement. If we fail to comply with proper overall controls, we could be materially harmed or fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, the existence of a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal controls could result in errors in our financial statements that could require a restatement, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations, result in increased costs to remediate any deficiencies, attract regulatory scrutiny or lawsuits and cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, leading to a substantial decline in the market price of our Paired Shares.

 

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We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE rules and, as a result, qualify for, and rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

A company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by an individual, a group or another company is a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NYSE rules and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements of the NYSE, including:

 

    the requirement that a majority of the Boards of Directors of the Corporation and ESH REIT consist of independent directors;

 

    the requirement that each of the Corporation and ESH REIT have a nominating/corporate governance committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities; and

 

    the requirement that each of the Corporation and ESH REIT have a compensation committee that is composed entirely of independent directors with a written charter addressing the committee’s purpose and responsibilities.

We rely on all of the exemptions listed above. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the NYSE.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

 

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Item 2. Properties

As of December 31, 2015, we owned and operated 629 hotels. The average age of our hotel properties at December 31, 2015 was 16.8 years. We are under long-term ground leases at four of our hotel properties with initial terms terminating at various dates between 2016 and 2096 with most leases including multiple renewal options for generally five or 10 year periods. Other than the four ground leases described above, all remaining hotel properties and grounds are fully owned. The following table provides certain information regarding those hotels.

 

State/Country

 

Number of Hotels

 

Number of Rooms

 

% of Total Rooms

California

  83   10,053   14.5%

Texas

  62   6,888   9.9%

Florida

  52   5,751   8.3%

Illinois

  33   3,814   5.5%

Virginia

  30   3,290   4.7%

North Carolina

  31   3,161   4.6%

Ohio

  28   2,677   3.9%

Georgia

  24   2,403   3.5%

Washington

  19   2,181   3.1%

New Jersey

  18   2,097   3.0%

Maryland

  19   2,066   3.0%

Michigan

  18   1,988   2.9%

Tennessee

  17   1,772   2.6%

Pennsylvania

  16   1,713   2.5%

Arizona

  15   1,704   2.5%

Massachusetts

  13   1,435   2.1%

Colorado

  12   1,422   2.0%

New York

  11   1,325   1.9%

Missouri

  12   1,276   1.8%

Indiana

  13   1,228   1.8%

Minnesota

  10   1,043   1.5%

South Carolina

  10   976   1.4%

Kentucky

  8   770   1.1%

Kansas

  6   708   1.0%

Alabama

  7   693   1.0%

Wisconsin

  6   665   1.0%

Oregon

  5   642   0.9%

Connecticut

  5   570   0.8%

Nevada

  4   529   0.8%

Canada

  3   500   0.7%

Utah

  4   484   0.7%

Oklahoma

  5   475   0.7%

Louisiana

  4   428   0.6%

Alaska

  4   419   0.6%

Rhode Island

  4   403   0.6%

New Mexico

  3   330   0.5%

Arkansas

  3   305   0.4%

Mississippi

  3   273   0.4%

Montana

  2   208   0.3%

Iowa

  2   190   0.3%

Delaware

  1   142   0.2%

Idaho

  1   107   0.1%

New Hampshire

  1   101   0.1%

Maine

  1   92   0.1%

Nebraska

  1   86   0.1%
 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

  629   69,383   100%
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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We lease our corporate headquarters in Charlotte, North Carolina. The initial lease term expires in August 2021 with two additional five year renewal terms. Our offices are sufficient to meet our present needs and we do not anticipate any difficulty in securing additional office space, as needed, on terms acceptable to us.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

We are from time to time subject to various claims and lawsuits incidental to our business. In the opinion of management, these claims and suits, individually or in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements, results of operations or liquidity or on ESH REIT’s consolidated financial statements, results of operations or liquidity.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

 

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PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information

Our Paired Shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol “STAY.” Below is a quarterly summary of the high and low prices of, and cash distributions declared on our Paired Shares, from January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2015:

 

     Price per Paired Share      Corporation
Cash Distributions

Declared
     ESH REIT
Cash Distributions

Declared
 

2015

   High      Low        

Fourth Quarter(1)

   $ 19.63       $ 15.75       $ 0.08       $ 0.34   

Third Quarter

     19.34         16.18         0.02         0.15   

Second Quarter

     21.00         18.77         0.02         0.15   

First Quarter

     21.30         18.67         0.00         0.15   

2014

                           

Fourth Quarter

   $ 23.30       $ 17.63       $ 0.00       $ 0.15   

Third Quarter

     24.06         21.86         0.00         0.15   

Second Quarter

     23.83         21.04         0.00         0.15   

First Quarter

     26.57         22.64         0.00         0.08   

 

(1) In the fourth quarter of 2015, in addition to our regular quarterly cash distribution, each of the Board of Directors of ESH REIT and the Corporation declared a special cash distribution of $0.19 per share, payable to Class A and Class B common shareholders, and of $0.06 per share, payable to common shareholders, respectively.

The Class A common stock of ESH REIT is held by the Corporation and has never been publicly traded.

Holders of Record

As of February 19, 2016, there were 48 holders of record of our Paired Shares and the Corporation was the only holder of ESH REIT’s Class A common stock. Because many of our Paired Shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of beneficial owners represented by these record holders.

Distribution Policies

In 2016, we intend to maintain or slightly increase our current distribution rate of $0.17 per Paired Share per quarter unless our consolidated results of operations, net income, Adjusted EBITDA, liquidity, cash flows, financial condition or prospects, economic conditions or other factors differ materially from our current assumptions. We intend to make a significant portion of our expected distributions in respect of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT. In the event distributions in respect of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT are not sufficient to meet our expected Paired Share distributions, the expected Paired Share distributions may be completed through distributions in respect of the common stock of the Corporation using funds distributed to the Corporation in respect of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, after allowance for tax, if any, on those funds.

The Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s Boards of Directors are independent of one another and owe separate fiduciary duties to the Corporation and ESH REIT. Each Board of Directors will separately determine the form, timing and amount of any distributions to be paid by the respective entities for any period. For a description of the Corporation’s distribution policy, please see “—Corporation Distribution Policy” and for ESH REIT’s distribution policy, see “—ESH REIT Distribution Policy.”

 

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Corporation Distribution Policy

The payment of Corporation distributions is at the discretion of the Corporation’s Board of Directors. Any such distributions will be made subject to the Corporation’s compliance with applicable law and will depend on, among other things, the Corporation’s results of operations and financial condition, level of indebtedness, capital requirements, capital contributions to ESH REIT, contractual restrictions, restrictions in any existing or future debt agreements of the Corporation or ESH REIT and in any preferred stock and other factors that the Corporation’s Board of Directors may deem relevant.

The Corporation’s ability to pay distributions depends on its receipt of cash distributions from ESH REIT in respect of the Class A common stock, which may further restrict its ability to pay distributions. In particular, ESH REIT’s ability to pay distributions is restricted by the terms of its indebtedness. See Note 7 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K, for a description of the restrictions on the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s ability to pay distributions.

On February 23, 2016, the Board of Directors of the Corporation declared a cash distribution of $0.02 per common share for the fourth quarter of 2015. The distribution is payable on March 22, 2016 to shareholders of record as of March 8, 2016.

ESH REIT Distribution Policy

To qualify and maintain its status as a REIT, ESH REIT must distribute annually to its shareholders an amount at least equal to:

 

    90% of its REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain; plus

 

    90% of the excess of its net income, if any, from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code; less

 

    the sum of certain items of non-cash income that exceeds a percentage of ESH REIT’s income.

ESH REIT intends to distribute its taxable income to the extent necessary to optimize its tax efficiency including, but not limited to, maintaining its REIT status, while retaining sufficient capital for its ongoing needs. ESH REIT is subject to income tax on its taxable income that is not distributed and to an excise tax to the extent that certain percentages of its taxable income are not distributed by specified dates. Taxable income as computed for purposes of the foregoing tax rules will not necessarily correspond to ESH REIT’s income before income taxes as determined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) for financial reporting purposes.

The timing and frequency of ESH REIT’s distributions will be authorized by ESH REIT’s Board of Directors, in its sole discretion, and declared based on a variety of factors, including:

 

    consolidated results of operations;

 

    debt service requirements;

 

    capital expenditure requirements for its hotel properties;

 

    taxable income;

 

    the annual distribution requirement under the REIT provisions of the Code;

 

    contractual restrictions;

 

    restrictions in any current or future debt agreements and in any preferred stock; and

 

    other factors that ESH REIT’s Board of Directors may deem relevant.

 

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Holders of ESH REIT Class A and Class B common stock are entitled to any common stock distributions that ESH REIT’s Board of Directors may declare. Approximately 55% of ESH REIT’s distributions are paid to the Corporation on account of its ownership of the Class A common stock. Each share of Class A and Class B common stock is entitled to the same amount of distributions per share, except as described below, ESH REIT may declare and pay taxable stock dividends in respect of the Class A common stock that differ from dividends paid in respect of the Class B common stock in order to maintain its REIT status.

ESH REIT’s ability to pay distributions is restricted by the terms of its indebtedness. In cases in which the terms of any of ESH REIT’s existing or future indebtedness prohibits the payment of cash dividends, ESH REIT may declare and pay taxable stock dividends in order to maintain its REIT status. See Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K, for a description of the restrictions on ESH REIT’s ability to pay distributions. In cases where ESH REIT distributes additional shares of its Class B common stock to the holders of its Class B common stock, the Corporation may correspondingly distribute a number of additional shares of its common stock, which together with the shares of Class B common stock distributed by ESH REIT will form Paired Shares.

On February 23, 2016, the Board of Directors of ESH REIT declared a cash distribution of $0.15 per Class A and Class B common share for the fourth quarter of 2015. This distribution is payable on March 22, 2016 to shareholders of record as of March 8, 2016.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the total shareholder return on our Paired Shares to the cumulative total returns of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“S&P 500”) and the Standard and Poor’s 500 Hotels, Resorts & Cruise Lines Index (“S&P Hotel Index”) for the period from November 13, 2013, the date on which our Paired Shares commenced trading on the NYSE, through December 31, 2015. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 on November 13, 2013 in our Paired Shares and in each of the indices and also assumes the reinvestment of dividends where applicable. The results shown in the graph below are not necessarily indicative of future performance.

 

LOGO

 

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This performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

In March 2015, ESH REIT issued 190,089 shares of Class A common stock to the Corporation for consideration of approximately $1.7 million. The issuance of these shares of Class A common stock was made pursuant to an exemption provided by Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act.

Purchase of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

None.

Share Repurchase Program

On December 10, 2015, the Boards of Directors of Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. authorized a combined Paired Share repurchase program for up to $100 million of the Paired Shares. On February 23, 2016, the Boards of Directors of Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. authorized an increase of the combined Paired Share repurchase program from $100 million to up to $200 million of Paired Shares. The program expires on December 31, 2016. Repurchases may be made at management’s discretion from time to time in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions or by other means (including through Rule 10b5-1 trading plans). Depending on market conditions and other factors, these repurchases may be commenced or suspended without prior notice. As of December 31, 2015, we have not repurchased any Paired Shares pursuant to the combined Paired Share repurchase program.

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data

Selected Historical Financial and Other Data—The Company

The selected historical consolidated and combined financial data of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 and as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from the audited consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company, which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. The selected historical consolidated and combined financial data of the Company for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 and as of December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from the audited consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company not included elsewhere in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. The following information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the historical audited consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and related notes and other financial information included herein.

 

     Company  

(Dollars in thousands, except ADR, RevPAR and
per Share and per Paired Share data)

   Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2012
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2011
 

Statement of operations data:

          

Total revenues

   $ 1,284,753      $ 1,213,475      $ 1,132,818      $ 1,011,462      $ 942,728   

Hotel operating expenses

     604,087        592,101        540,551        493,635        463,369   

Total operating expenses

     915,620        865,989        821,827        727,574        677,351   

Income from operations

     500,072        348,738        312,125        284,272        265,609   

Net income

     283,022        150,554        82,656        22,281        46,635   

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

     (169,982     (110,958     3,575        (1,549     (1,062

Net income attributable to common shareholders or members

     113,040        39,596        86,231        20,732        45,573   

Net income per common share-basic

   $ 0.55      $ 0.19      $ 0.49      $ 0.12      $ 0.27   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net income per common share-diluted

   $ 0.55      $ 0.19      $ 0.49      $ 0.12      $ 0.26   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash distributions paid per common share

   $ 0.06      $ —        $ —        $ —        $ —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Distributions declared per common share

   $ 0.12      $ —        $ —        $ —        $ —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other financial data:

          

Cash flows provided by (used in):

          

Operating activities

   $ 428,889      $ 370,485      $ 311,313      $ 201,110      $ 180,605   

Investing activities

     66,289        (182,243     (165,259     (223,842     (43,389

Financing activities

     (243,180     (127,160     (188,977     27,594        (50,074

Capital expenditures

     204,717        173,239        172,540        271,464        106,064   

EBITDA(a)

     701,237        532,182        480,178        414,210        386,047   

Adjusted EBITDA(a)

     603,081        556,660        518,610        434,908        409,864   

Hotel Operating Profit(b)

     689,965        626,978        594,082        508,449        468,955   

Hotel Operating Margin(b)

     53.7     51.7     52.5     50.8     50.3

Paired Share Income(c)

   $ 283,006      $ 150,538      $ 81,926      $ 20,732      $ 45,573   

Adjusted Paired Share Income(c)

     194,699        169,711        121,829        71,030        62,160   

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share—basic(c)

   $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.70      $ 0.42      $ 0.37   

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share—diluted(c)

   $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.69      $ 0.41      $ 0.36   

Operating data:

          

Rooms (at period end)

     69,383        76,000        76,219        75,928        73,657   

Occupancy

     73.7     74.3     74.2     73.3     75.1

ADR

   $ 62.22      $ 57.93      $ 54.15      $ 49.77      $ 45.20   

RevPAR

   $ 45.89      $ 43.02      $ 40.18      $ 36.46      $ 33.96   

 

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Table of Contents
     Company  
     December 31,      December 31,      December 31,      December 31,      December 31,  

(In thousands)

   2015      2014      2013      2012      2011  

Balance sheet data:

              

Total assets

   $ 4,528,900       $ 4,449,142       $ 4,407,795       $ 4,427,188       $ 4,312,966   

Total debt, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount(d)

     2,762,388         2,859,391         2,862,951         3,541,162         2,635,881   

Mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     21,202         21,202         21,202         —           —     

Noncontrolling interest

     608,684         599,799         596,632         3,157         1,925   

 

(a) EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are key metrics used by management to assess our operating performance and facilitate comparisons between us and other lodging companies, hotel owners and capital-intensive companies. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as presented may not be comparable to similar measures calculated by other companies. This information should not be considered as an alternative to net income, net income per common share, cash flow from operations or any other operating performance measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Additionally, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not solely be considered as measures of our liquidity or indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to pay distributions. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA” for a definition and discussion of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA.

The following table provides a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 (in thousands):

 

    Company  
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2012
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2011
 

Net income

  $ 283,022      $ 150,554      $ 82,656      $ 22,281      $ 46,635   

Interest expense, net

    137,782        149,364        234,459        257,349        211,924   

Income tax expense (benefit)

    76,536        45,057        (4,990     4,642        7,050   

Depreciation and amortization

    203,897        187,207        168,053        129,938        120,438   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

    701,237        532,182        480,178        414,210        386,047   

Non-cash equity-based compensation

    10,500        8,803        20,168        4,409        4,730   

Other non-operating expense

    2,732        3,763        —          —          —     

Impairment of long-lived assets

    9,011        2,300        3,330        1,420        —     

Gain on sale of hotel properties

    (130,894     (864     —          —          —     

Restructuring expenses

    —          —          605        5,763        10,491   

Acquisition transaction expenses

    —          —          235        1,675        593   

Other expenses

    10,495 (1)      10,476 (2)      14,094 (3)      7,431 (4)      8,003 (5) 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ 603,081      $ 556,660      $ 518,610      $ 434,908      $ 409,864   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (1) Includes costs incurred in connection with the preparation of the registration statement filed in June 2015 and the November 2015 secondary offering of approximately $0.9 million, transaction costs of approximately $0.3 million associated with the sale of hotel properties, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million.
  (2) Includes public company transition costs of approximately $3.0 million, including approximately $1.5 million in costs incurred in connection with the August 2014 secondary offering, consulting fees of approximately $1.9 million related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $5.6 million.
  (3) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $11.2 million, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $2.9 million.
  (4) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $1.6 million, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, consulting fees of approximately $4.9 million related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including services related to pricing and yield management projects, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $0.9 million.
  (5) Includes consulting fees of approximately $7.4 million related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including services related to pricing and yield management projects, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $0.6 million

 

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(b) Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin. Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin are supplemental measures of aggregate hotel-level profitability used by management to evaluate hotel operating profitability. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin” for definitions and discussion of Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin.

The following table provides a reconciliation of room revenues, other hotel revenues and hotel operating expenses (excluding loss on disposal of assets) to Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 (in thousands):

 

     Company  
     Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2012
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2011
 

Room revenues

   $ 1,265,653      $ 1,195,816      $ 1,113,956      $ 984,273      $ 912,988   

Other hotel revenues

     19,100        17,659        17,787        16,898        18,693   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total hotel revenues

     1,284,753        1,213,475        1,131,743        1,001,171        931,681   

Hotel operating expenses(1)

     594,788        586,497        537,661        492,722        462,726   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Hotel Operating Profit

   $ 689,965      $ 626,978      $ 594,082      $ 508,449      $ 468,955   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Hotel Operating Margin

     53.7     51.7     52.5     50.8     50.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

  (1) Excludes loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million, $5.6 million, $2.9 million, $0.9 million and $0.6 million, respectively.

 

(c) Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share. We believe that Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share provide meaningful indicators of the Company’s operating performance in addition to separate and/or individual analyses of net income attributable to common shareholders of the Corporation and net income attributable to Class B common shareholders of ESH REIT, each of which is impacted by specific U.S. GAAP requirements and may not necessarily reflect how cash flows are generated on an individual entity or total enterprise basis.

Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share should not be considered as alternatives to net income of the Company, net income of the Corporation, net income of ESH REIT, net income per share of common stock of the Corporation, net income per share of Class A or Class B common stock of ESH REIT or any other operating measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share” for definitions and discussion of Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Income per Paired Share.

 

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The following table provides a reconciliation of net income attributable to common shareholders or members to Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income and a calculation of Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 (in thousands, except per Paired Share data):

 

    Company  
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2012
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2011
 

Net income attributable to common shareholders or members

  $ 113,040      $ 39,596      $ 86,231      $ 20,732      $ 45,573   

Noncontrolling interests attributable to Class B common shares of ESH REIT

    169,966        110,942        (4,305 )(1)      —          —     
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Paired Share Income

    283,006        150,538        81,926        20,732        45,573   

Debt extinguishment costs

    2,392        7,185        22,984        36,593        —     

Other non-operating expense

    2,061        2,871        —          —          —     

Impairment of long-lived assets

    6,598        1,771        3,245        1,420        —     

Gain on sale of hotel properties

    (107,726     (659     —          —          —     

Restructuring expenses

    —          —          576        4,772        9,117   

Acquisition transaction expenses

    —          —          229        1,360        515   

Other expenses

    8,368 (2)      8,005 (3)      12,869 (4)      6,153 (5)      6,955 (6) 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income

  $ 194,699      $ 169,711      $ 121,829      $ 71,030      $ 62,160   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share - basic

  $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.70      $ 0.42      $ 0.37   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share - diluted

  $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.69      $ 0.41      $ 0.36   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average Paired Shares outstanding - basic

    204,211        203,548        174,894        169,816        168,813   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average Paired Shares outstanding - diluted

    204,567        204,508        176,268        171,796        171,345   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Prior to the change in our legal and corporate structure in November 2013, which occurred in connection with the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s initial public offering, no portion of the Company’s (i.e., the Paired Shares’) noncontrolling interests represented interests attributable to Class B common shares of ESH REIT.
(2) Includes costs incurred in connection with the preparation of the registration statement filed in June 2015 and the November 2015 secondary offering of approximately $0.9 million pre-tax, transaction costs of approximately $0.3 million pre-tax associated with the sale of hotel properties, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million pre-tax, which total approximately $8.4 million after-tax.
(3) Includes public company transition costs of approximately $3.0 million pre-tax, including approximately $1.5 million pre-tax in costs incurred in connection with the August 2014 secondary offering, consulting fees of approximately $1.9 million pre-tax related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $5.6 million pre-tax, which total approximately $8.0 million after-tax.
(4) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $11.2 million pre-tax, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $2.9 million pre-tax, which total approximately $12.9 million after-tax.
(5) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $1.6 million pre-tax, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, consulting fees of approximately $4.9 million pre-tax related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including services related to pricing and yield management projects, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $0.9 million pre-tax, which total approximately $6.2 million after-tax.
(6) Includes consulting fees of approximately $7.4 million pre-tax related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including services related to pricing and yield management projects, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $0.6 million pre-tax, which total approximately $7.0 million after-tax.

 

(d) As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc., which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K, effective December 31, 2015, the Company early adopted FASB Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-03 and ASU No. 2015-15. Therefore, total debt is shown net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount in the selected financial data table. Because the early adoption of these updates required retrospective application, the historical financial information contained in this Item 6 and elsewhere in this report has been restated to reflect the retrospective impact of our adoption.

 

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Table of Contents

Selected Historical Financial and Other Data—ESH REIT

The selected historical consolidated financial data of ESH REIT for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 and as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of ESH REIT, which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. The selected historical consolidated financial data of ESH REIT for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 and as of December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements of ESH REIT not included elsewhere in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. The following information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified by reference to, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the historical audited consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc. and related notes and other financial information included herein.

 

    ESH REIT  

(In thousands, except per share data)

  Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2012
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2011
 

Statement of operations data:

         

Rental revenues from Extended Stay America, Inc.

  $ 719,635      $ 684,205      $ 71,900      $ —        $ —     

Hotel room revenues

    —          —          983,950        984,273        912,988   

Other hotel revenues

    —          —          15,576        16,898        18,693   

Management fees and other revenues

    —          —          1,113        10,346        11,172   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues

    719,635        684,205        1,072,539        1,011,517        942,853   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Hotel operating expenses

    97,062        93,826        478,727        493,635        463,369   

Total operating expenses

    312,079        292,493        740,395        729,842        677,518   

Income from operations

    524,209        392,845        333,219        282,059        265,567   

Net income

    378,184        247,094        100,466        20,068        46,593   

Net income per common share:

         

Class A-basic

  $ 0.83      $ 0.54      $ 0.26      $ 0.05      $ 0.12   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Class A-diluted

  $ 0.83      $ 0.54      $ 0.26      $ 0.05      $ 0.12   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Class B-basic

  $ 0.83      $ 0.55      $ 0.26      $ 0.05      $ 0.12   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Class B-diluted

  $ 0.83      $ 0.54      $ 0.25      $ 0.05      $ 0.12   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Cash distributions paid per common share

         

Class A

  $ 0.60      $ 0.53      $ 0.20      $ 2.19      $ 0.07   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Class B

  $ 0.60      $ 0.53      $ 0.20      $ 2.19      $ 0.07   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Distributions declared per common share

         

Class A

  $ 0.79      $ 0.53      $ 0.20      $ 2.19      $ 0.07   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Class B

  $ 0.79      $ 0.53      $ 0.20      $ 2.19      $ 0.07   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other financial data:

         

Cash flows provided by (used in):

         

Operating activities

  $ 511,985      $ 432,857      $ 295,198      $ 194,169      $ 180,546   

Investing activities

    61,034        (153,307     (164,078     (223,842     (43,395

Financing activities

    (383,579     (264,355     (215,679     34,340        (50,074

Capital expenditures

    199,135        166,358        171,931        271,464        106,064   

 

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     ESH REIT  

(In thousands)

   December 31,
2015
     December 31,
2014
     December 31,
2013
     December 31,
2012
     December 31,
2011
 

Balance sheet data:

              

Total assets

   $ 4,316,549       $ 4,268,970       $ 4,286,440       $ 4,422,896       $ 4,302,333   

Total debt, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount(a)

     2,762,388         2,859,391         2,862,951         3,541,162         2,635,881   

 

(a) As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K, effective December 31, 2015, ESH REIT early adopted FASB ASU No. 2015-03 and ASU No. 2015-15. Therefore, total debt is shown net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount in the selected financial data table. Because the early adoption of these updates required retrospective application, the historical financial information contained in this Item 6 and elsewhere in this report has been restated to reflect the retrospective impact of our adoption.

EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Hotel Operating Profit, Hotel Operating Margin, Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share are not meaningful or useful measures for ESH REIT on a stand-alone basis due to the fact that a Paired Share represents an investment in the Company, as a single, consolidated enterprise, which is reflected in the consolidated and combined Company results of operations; therefore, we believe these performance measures are meaningful for the Company only.

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations discusses the Company’s consolidated and combined financial statements and ESH REIT’s consolidated financial statements, each of which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and judgments, including those relating to property and equipment, goodwill, revenue recognition, income taxes, equity-based compensation and investments. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.

The following discussion may contain forward-looking statements about our market, analysis, future trends, the demand for our services, capital expenditures and other future results, among other topics. Actual results may differ materially from those suggested by our forward-looking statements for various reasons, including those discussed in “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Those sections expressly qualify any subsequent oral and written forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with “Business-Our Company,” “Business-Our History-The Pre-IPO Transactions,” “Selected Historical Financial and Other Data—the Company,” “Selected Historical Financial and Other Data—ESH REIT,” the consolidated and combined financial statements and related notes of the Company included in Item 8 of this combined annual report on Form 10-K and the consolidated financial statements and related notes of ESH REIT included in Item 8 of this combined annual report on Form 10-K. Unless otherwise defined in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” for definitions of our indebtedness, see Note 7 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

We present below separate results of operations for each of the Company and ESH REIT. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the Operating Lessees, which were wholly-owned subsidiaries of ESH REIT, leased the hotel properties from ESH REIT pursuant to operating leases. HVM, an eligible independent contractor (within the meaning of Section 856(d)(9) of the Code), managed the hotel properties pursuant to management agreements with the Operating Lessees. ESH Strategies owned the trademarks and licensed their use to the Operating Lessees pursuant to trademark license agreements. The Pre-IPO Transactions restructured and reorganized the then-existing business and legal entities such that the Operating Lessees, ESH Strategies and the assets and obligations of HVM were transferred to the Corporation. Subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, our assets and operations, other than ownership of our real estate assets (which continue to be owned by ESH REIT), are held by the Corporation and operated as an integrated enterprise. Also subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, the Corporation owns all of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, representing approximately 55% of the outstanding common stock of ESH REIT.

Overview

We are the largest integrated owner/operator of company-branded hotels in North America. Our business operates in the extended stay lodging industry, and as of December 31, 2015, we own and operate 629 hotel properties comprising approximately 69,400 rooms located in 44 states across the United States and in Canada. We own and operate the substantial majority of our hotels under our core brand, Extended Stay America, which serves the mid-price extended stay segment, and accounts for approximately half of the segment by number of rooms in the United States. In addition, we own and operate three Extended Stay Canada hotels.

Our extended stay hotels are designed to provide an affordable and attractive alternative to traditional lodging or apartment accommodations and are targeted toward self-sufficient, value-conscious guests. Our hotels

 

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feature fully-furnished rooms with in-room kitchens, complimentary grab-and-go breakfast, free WiFi, flat screen TVs and on-site guest laundry. Our guests include business travelers, leisure travelers, professionals on temporary work or training assignments, persons relocating, temporarily displaced or purchasing a home and anyone else in need of temporary housing. Our guests generally rent accommodations on a weekly or longer term basis. For the year ended December 31, 2015, approximately 32.2%, 23.6% and 44.2% of our total revenues were derived from guests with stays from 1-6 nights, from 7-29 nights, and 30 or more nights, respectively.

We seek to drive our competitive advantage by becoming a dominant brand with national distribution; owning and operating hotels with great locations, affordable prices and relevant amenities; and leveraging our business model to drive superior cash flow. To achieve this competitive advantage, we focus on continually improving our product and service, improving marketing efforts, driving ADR and maximizing cost and capital structure efficiency, all while seeking to return value to our shareholders.

In December 2015, we sold a portfolio of 53 hotel properties, 47 of which operated under our former Crossland Economy Studios brand and six of which operated under our Extended Stay America brand, and certain intellectual property of Crossland Economy Studios (the “Portfolio Sale”). We no longer own, operate or manage these hotel properties, nor does the Corporation own intellectual property related to Crossland Economy Studios. See Note 4 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

Key Metrics Evaluated by Management

We evaluate the performance of our business through the use of certain non-GAAP financial measures. U.S. GAAP refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. Each of these non-GAAP financial measures should be considered as supplemental measures to U.S. GAAP performance measures such as total revenues, net income, net income per share and cash flow provided by operating activities. These financial measures include EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA, Hotel Operating Profit, Hotel Operating Margin, Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share. We provide a more detailed discussion of certain of these non-GAAP financial measures, how management uses such measures to evaluate our financial condition and operating performance, a discussion of certain limitations of such measures and a reconciliation of such measures to the nearest U.S. GAAP measures under “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

Average daily rate (“ADR”) is a commonly used measure within the lodging industry to evaluate hotel financial performance. ADR represents hotel room revenues divided by total number of rooms sold in a given period. ADR measures average room price attained by a hotel or group of hotels, and ADR trends provide useful information concerning pricing policies and the nature of the customer base of a hotel or group of hotels. Changes in room rates have an impact on overall revenues and profitability.

Occupancy is a commonly used measure within the lodging industry to evaluate hotel financial performance. Occupancy represents the total number of rooms sold in a given period divided by the total number of rooms available during that period. Occupancy measures the utilization of our hotels’ available capacity. Management uses occupancy to gauge demand at a specific hotel or group of hotels in a given period. Occupancy levels also help us determine achievable ADR levels as demand for hotel rooms increases or decreases.

Revenue per available room (“RevPAR”) is a commonly used measure within the lodging industry to evaluate hotel financial performance. RevPAR represents the product of average daily room rate charged and the average daily occupancy achieved for a hotel or group of hotels in a given period. RevPAR does not include ancillary revenues, such as food and beverage revenues, or parking, pet, telephone or other guest service revenues. Although RevPAR does not include these other hotel revenues, it generally is considered a key indicator of core revenues for many hotels. For the year ended December 31, 2015, room revenues represented approximately 98.5% of our total revenues.

 

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RevPAR changes that are driven predominately by occupancy have different implications on incremental operating profitability than do changes that are driven predominately by ADR. For example, increases in occupancy at a hotel would lead to increases in room revenues and other hotel revenues, as well as incremental operating costs (including housekeeping services and amenity costs). RevPAR increases due to higher room rates, however, would generally not result in additional operational room-related costs, with the exception of those charged or incurred as a percentage of revenue, such as credit card fees. As a result, changes in RevPAR driven by increases or decreases in ADR generally have a greater effect on operating profitability than changes in RevPAR driven by occupancy levels.

Understanding Our Results of Operations – The Company

Revenues and Expenses. The Company’s revenues are derived from the operation of our hotels. Hotel operating expenses account for the largest portion of the Company’s operating expenses and reflect ongoing expenses associated with the ownership and management of our hotels.

The following table presents the components of the Company’s revenues as a percentage of our total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2015:

 

     Percentage of
2015
Revenues

•      Room revenues. Room revenues are driven primarily by ADR and occupancy. Pricing policy and customer mix are significant drivers of ADR. Due to our relatively high occupancy levels, our primary focus is on increasing RevPAR by increasing ADR. For the year ended December 31, 2015, we experienced RevPAR growth of approximately 6.7% compared to the year ended December 31, 2014, due to a shift in our customer mix to a greater number of high yield, shorter-stay guests as well as the collective impact of our hotel reinvestment program, upgraded operational practices, investments in marketing and focus on service excellence.

   98.5%

•      Other hotel revenues. Other hotel revenues include ancillary revenues such as laundry revenues, vending commissions, additional housekeeping fees and pet charges. Occupancy and customer mix, as well as the number and percentage of guests that have longer-term stays, are the key drivers of other hotel revenues.

   1.5%

 

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The following table presents the components of the Company’s operating expenses as a percentage of our total operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015:

 

     Percentage of
2015
Operating
Expenses

•       Hotel operating expenses. Hotel operating expenses have both fixed and variable components. Operating expenses that are relatively fixed include personnel expense, real estate tax expense and property insurance premium expense. Occupancy is a key driver of expenses that have a high degree of variability such as housekeeping services and amenity costs. Other variable expenses include marketing costs, reservation costs, property insurance claims expense and repairs and maintenance expense. We experienced an increase in hotel operating expenses of approximately $12.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the year ended December 31, 2014, due mainly to increases in reservation costs as well as hotel personnel expense and credit card transaction fees. These increases were partially offset by decreases in marketing costs, property insurance claims expense and certain amenity costs.

   66.0%

•       General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses include expenses associated with corporate overhead. These costs consist primarily of compensation expense of our corporate staff and professional fees, including consulting, audit, tax and legal fees.

   10.8%

•       Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is a non-cash charge that relates primarily to the acquisition and related usage of hotels and other property and equipment, including capital expenditures incurred with respect to our hotel renovations.

   22.2%

•       Impairment of long-lived assets. Impairment of long-lived assets is a non-cash charge recognized when events and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset may not be recoverable.

   1.0%

Understanding Our Results of Operations – ESH REIT

Revenues. ESH REIT’s rental revenues are generated from leasing its hotel properties to the Operating Lessees. Rental revenues consist of fixed minimum rental payments recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease terms plus specified percentages paid by the Operating Lessees of total hotel revenues over designated thresholds.

 

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Expenses. The following table presents the components of ESH REIT’s operating expenses as a percentage of ESH REIT’s total operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015:

 

     Percentage of
2015
Operating
Expenses

•       Hotel operating expenses. ESH REIT’s hotel operating expenses include expenses directly related to ownership of the hotels, such as real estate tax expense and property insurance premium and claims expense.

   31.1%

•       General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses include overhead expenses incurred directly by ESH REIT and administrative service costs reimbursed to ESA Management.

   5.1%

•       Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization is a non-cash charge that relates primarily to the acquisition and related usage of hotels and other property and equipment, including capital expenditures incurred with respect to our hotel renovations.

   63.8%

Results of Operations

For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, the consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company include the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows of the Corporation and its subsidiaries, including the Operating Lessees, ESH Strategies, ESA Management and ESH REIT. Third party equity interests in ESH REIT, which consist primarily of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT and represent approximately 45% of ESH REIT’s total common equity, are not owned by the Corporation and therefore are presented as noncontrolling interests.

For the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the consolidated and combined financial statements of the Company included the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows of the Company’s predecessor, which included ESH REIT’s predecessor, ESH Hospitality LLC, ESH Strategies and a consolidated variable interest entity, HVM, our former management entity. Third party equity interests in HVM, which represented all of HVM’s equity, were not owned by the Company’s predecessor and therefore were presented as noncontrolling interests. ESH REIT and ESH Strategies became a consolidated group prior to the completion of the Offering. Since the Pre-IPO Transactions, which resulted in these entities becoming a consolidated group, were accounted for at historical cost, the Company’s predecessor financial information combined ESH REIT’s predecessor financial information with that of ESH Strategies.

For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, the consolidated financial statements of ESH REIT include the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows of ESH REIT and its subsidiaries.

For the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the consolidated financial statements of ESH REIT included the financial position, results of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows of ESH REIT’s predecessor, ESH Hospitality LLC, its subsidiaries, which included the Operating Lessees, and HVM. Third party equity interests in HVM, which represented all of HVM’s equity, were not owned by ESH REIT and therefore were presented as noncontrolling interests.

 

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Results of Operations – The Company

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

As of December 31, 2014, we owned and operated 682 hotels consisting of 76,000 rooms. On December 8, 2015, we completed the Portfolio Sale. Therefore, as of December 31, 2015, we owned and operated 629 hotels consisting of approximately 69,400 rooms.

The following table presents our consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, including the amount and percentage change in these results between the periods (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Change ($)     Change (%)  

Revenues:

        

Room revenues

   $ 1,265,653      $ 1,195,816      $ 69,837        5.8

Other hotel revenues

     19,100        17,659        1,441        8.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total revenues

     1,284,753        1,213,475        71,278        5.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Operating expenses:

        

Hotel operating expenses

     604,087        592,101        11,986        2.0

General and administrative expenses

     98,625        84,381        14,244        16.9

Depreciation and amortization

     203,897        187,207        16,690        8.9

Impairment of long-lived assets

     9,011        2,300        6,711        291.8
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total operating expenses

     915,620        865,989        49,631        5.7

Gain on sale of hotel properties

     130,894        864        130,030        15049.8

Other income

     45        388        (343     (88.4 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income from operations

     500,072        348,738        151,334        43.4

Other non-operating expense

     2,732        3,763        (1,031     (27.4 )% 

Interest expense, net

     137,782        149,364        (11,582     (7.8 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income before income tax expense

     359,558        195,611        163,947        83.8

Income tax expense

     76,536        45,057        31,479        69.9
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income

     283,022        150,554        132,468        88.0

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(1)

     (169,982     (110,958     (59,024     53.2
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income attributable to common shareholders

   $ 113,040      $ 39,596      $ 73,444        185.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

(1) Noncontrolling interests in Extended Stay America, Inc. include approximately 45% of ESH REIT’s common equity and 125 shares of ESH REIT preferred stock.

 

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The following table presents key operating metrics, including occupancy, ADR, RevPAR and renovation displacement data for our hotels for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively:

 

    Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Change  

Number of hotels (as of December 31)

    629        682        (53

Number of rooms (as of December 31)

    69,383        76,000        (6,617

Occupancy

    73.7     74.3     (60) bps   

ADR

  $ 62.22      $ 57.93        7.4

RevPAR

  $ 45.89      $ 43.02        6.7

Hotel Inventory (as of December 31)(1)

     

Renovated Extended Stay America(2)

    463        335        128   

Unrenovated Extended Stay America and other

    166        300        (134

Crossland Economy Studios

    —          47        (47
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total number of hotels

    629        682        (53

Renovation Displacement Data (in thousands, except percentages)(1)

     

Total available room nights

    27,581        27,795        (214

Room nights displaced from renovation

    363        224        139   

% of available room nights displaced

    1.3     0.8     50 bps   

 

(1) See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Expenditures – Hotel Reinvestment Program” for a discussion of our phased capital investment programs across our portfolio.
(2) Includes three Extended Stay Canada-branded hotels.

Room revenues. Room revenues increased by approximately $69.8 million, or 5.8%, to approximately $1,265.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $1,195.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in room revenues was primarily due to a 7.4% increase in ADR partially offset by a 60 bps decrease in occupancy, resulting in a 6.7% increase in RevPAR, which was primarily a result of a shift in our customer mix to a greater number of high yield, shorter-stay guests as well as the collective impact of our hotel reinvestment program, upgraded operational practices, investments in marketing and focus on service excellence.

Other hotel revenues. Other hotel revenues increased by approximately $1.4 million, or 8.2%, to approximately $19.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $17.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014.

Hotel operating expenses. Hotel operating expenses increased by approximately $12.0 million, or 2.0%, to approximately $604.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $592.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was mainly due to an increase in loss on disposal of assets of approximately $8.3 million as a result of our hotel reinvestment program. The Company completed 128 hotel renovations during the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to 105 hotel renovations during the year ended December 31, 2014. Additionally, the increase in hotel operating expenses was partly due to an increase in reservation costs of approximately $7.5 million, mainly due to system-wide implementation of our central call center and an increase in sales volume, as well as an increase in hotel personnel expense of approximately $7.0 million and credit card transaction fees of approximately $2.5 million. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in marketing costs of approximately $4.1 million, mainly due to a decrease in television advertising, as well as a decrease in property insurance claims expense of approximately $2.1 million due to fewer and less severe insurable events than in the prior year and a decrease in amenity costs of approximately $4.2 million.

Hotel Operating Margin (as defined in “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin”) increased to 53.7% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to 51.7% for the

 

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year ended December 31, 2014. Total room and other hotel revenues increased by approximately $71.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to the year ended December 31, 2014, while Hotel Operating Profit (as defined in “–Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin”), increased by approximately $63.0 million for the same period, which represents an operating margin flow-through, defined as the change in Hotel Operating Profit divided by the change in total room and other hotel revenues, of approximately 88.4%.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $14.2 million, or 16.9%, to approximately $98.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $84.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was mainly driven by increases in personnel expense of approximately $11.9 million, attributable to an increase in short-term incentive compensation during the year ended December 31, 2015 due to our improved operating performance and a credit of approximately $2.3 million recognized in the prior year related to the settlement of previous incentive agreements with certain operations personnel, as well as increases in non-cash equity based compensation of approximately $1.7 million mainly due to new grants awarded to executives during the year ended December 31, 2015, legal settlements and professional fees totaling approximately $1.6 million and ongoing costs related to our new revenue management system of approximately $1.6 million. These increases were offset by decreases in public company transition costs, including secondary offering costs, and consulting fees related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives of approximately $3.9 million.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased by approximately $16.7 million, or 8.9%, to approximately $203.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $187.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily due to an increase in investment in hotel assets as a result of our hotel reinvestment program.

Impairment of long-lived assets. Asset impairments are recorded as required based on an evaluation of property and equipment and intangible assets for impairment. During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, we recognized impairment charges related to property and equipment of approximately $9.0 million and $2.3 million, respectively.

Gain on sale of hotel properties. During the year ended December 31, 2015, we recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $130.9 million, which related to the Portfolio Sale. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $0.9 million, which related to the sale of our two Hometown Inn-branded hotels.

Other-non operating expense. During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, we recognized non-cash foreign currency transaction losses of approximately $2.7 million and $3.8 million, respectively, mainly related to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar versus the Canadian dollar at one of our Canadian currency-based entities which has U.S. dollar denominated debt.

Interest expense, net. Excluding debt extinguishment costs of approximately $3.0 million and $9.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, net interest expense decreased approximately $5.2 million, or 3.7%, to approximately $134.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $140.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 primarily due to a decrease in the Company’s outstanding debt. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had total debt outstanding, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount, of approximately $2,762.4 million compared to approximately $2,859.4 million as of December 31, 2014. The Company’s weighted-average interest rate increased to approximately 4.4% as of December 31, 2015 from approximately 4.0% as of December 31, 2014 primarily due to the issuance of $500.0 million of 5.25% senior notes due in 2025 (the “2025 Notes”), the proceeds of which were used to repay $500.0 million of the outstanding balance under its $2.52 billion mortgage loan (the “2012 Mortgage Loan”), a portion of which had a varying floating interest rate.

 

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Income tax expense. Our effective income tax rate decreased by approximately 1.7 percentage points to approximately 21.3% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately 23.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014. The Company’s effective tax rate is lower than the federal statutory rate of 35% due to ESH REIT’s status as a REIT under the provisions of the Code during these periods. The decrease in our effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2015 is due to the fact that in 2015, ESH REIT distributed closer to 100% of its taxable income than it did in 2014. In the future, ESH REIT intends to distribute its taxable income to the extent necessary to optimize its tax efficiency including, but not limited to, maintaining its REIT status, while retaining sufficient capital for its ongoing needs. ESH REIT expects that such distributions will be approximately 95% of its taxable income. ESH REIT will incur federal and state income tax at statutory rates on its taxable income not distributed.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013

As of December 31, 2013, we owned and operated 684 hotels consisting of approximately 76,200 rooms. In July 2014, we sold two hotels which operated under the Hometown Inn brand. As of December 31, 2014, we owned and operated 682 hotels consisting of 76,000 rooms.

The following table presents our consolidated and combined results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, including the amount and percentage change in these results between the periods (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
    Change ($)     Change (%)  

Revenues:

        

Room revenues

   $ 1,195,816      $ 1,113,956      $ 81,860        7.3

Other hotel revenues

     17,659        17,787        (128     (0.7 )% 

Management fees, license fees and other revenues

     —          1,075        (1,075     n/m   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total revenues

     1,213,475        1,132,818        80,657        7.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Operating expenses:

        

Hotel operating expenses

     592,101        540,551        51,550        9.5

General and administrative expenses

     84,381        108,325        (23,944     (22.1 )% 

Depreciation and amortization

     187,207        168,053        19,154        11.4

Impairment of long-lived assets

     2,300        3,330        (1,030     (30.9 )% 

Managed property payroll expenses

     —          728        (728     n/m   

Restructuring expenses

     —          605        (605     n/m   

Acquisition transaction expenses

     —          235        (235     n/m   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total operating expenses

     865,989        821,827        44,162        5.4

Gain on sale of hotel properties

     864        —          864        n/m   

Other income

     388        1,134        (746     (65.8 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income from operations

     348,738        312,125        36,613        11.7

Other non-operating expense

     3,763        —          3,763        n/m   

Interest expense, net

     149,364        234,459        (85,095     (36.3 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income before income tax expense

     195,611        77,666        117,945        151.9

Income tax expense (benefit)

     45,057        (4,990     50,047        (1002.9 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income

     150,554        82,656        67,898        82.1

Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(1)

     (110,958     3,575        (114,533     (3203.7 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income attributable to common shareholders or members

   $ 39,596      $ 86,231      $ (46,635     (54.1 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

(1) Noncontrolling interests in Extended Stay America, Inc. include approximately 45% of ESH REIT’s common equity and 125 shares of ESH REIT preferred stock.

n/m = not meaningful

 

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The following table presents key operating metrics, including occupancy, ADR, RevPAR and renovation displacement data for our hotels for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively:

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
    Change  

Number of hotels (as of December 31)

     682        684        (2

Number of rooms (as of December 31)

     76,000        76,219        (219

Occupancy

     74.3     74.2     10 bps   

ADR

   $ 57.93      $ 54.15        7.0

RevPAR

   $ 43.02      $ 40.18        7.1

Hotel Inventory (as of December 31)(1):

      

Renovated Extended Stay America(2)

     335        230        105   

Unrenovated Extended Stay America and other

     300        407        (107

Crossland Economy Studios

     47        47        —     
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total number of hotels

     682        684        (2

Renovation Displacement Data (in thousands, except percentages)(1):

      

Total available room nights

     27,795        27,722        73   

Room nights displaced from renovation

     224        222        2   

% of available room nights displaced

     0.8     0.8     0 bps   

 

(1) See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Expenditures – Hotel Reinvestment Program” for a discussion of our phased capital investment programs across our portfolio.
(2) Includes three Extended Stay Canada-branded hotels.

Room revenues. Room revenues increased by approximately $81.9 million, or 7.3%, to approximately $1,195.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $1,114.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in room revenues was due to a 7.0% increase in ADR and a 10 bps increase in occupancy, resulting in a 7.1% increase in RevPAR, which was primarily a result of a shift in our customer mix to a greater number of high yield, shorter-stay guests as well as our hotel reinvestment program, operating and service initiatives and more consistent pricing and discount policies.

Other hotel revenues. Other hotel revenues remained relatively consistent, decreasing by approximately $0.1 million, or 0.7%, to approximately $17.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $17.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.

Management fees, license fees and other revenues. Management fees, license fees and other revenues were $0 for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $1.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The decrease in these fees was due to the acquisition of two hotels on December 31, 2013 which we previously managed.

Hotel operating expenses. Hotel operating expenses increased by approximately $51.6 million, or 9.5%, to approximately $592.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $540.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in hotel operating expenses was partly driven by an increase in marketing and reservation costs of approximately $17.9 million, primarily related to our national advertising campaign and the system-wide implementation of our central reservations call center. Additionally, the increase was impacted by increases in property insurance claims expense and repairs and maintenance expense of approximately $13.6 million, an increase in utilities expense of approximately $4.7 million and increases in hotel personnel expense, real estate tax expense and loss on disposal of assets.

Hotel Operating Margin (as defined in “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin”) decreased to 51.7% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 52.5% for the year ended December 31, 2013. Total room and other hotel revenues increased by approximately $81.7 million

 

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for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to the year ended December 31, 2013, while Hotel Operating Profit (as defined in “—Non-GAAP Financial Measures—Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin”), excluding the loss on disposal of assets, increased by approximately $32.9 million for the same period, which represents an operating margin flow-through, defined as the change in Hotel Operating Profit divided by the change in total room and other hotel revenues, of approximately 40.2%.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses decreased by approximately $23.9 million, or 22.1%, to approximately $84.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $108.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. During 2013, costs related to our initial public offering totaled approximately $25.8 million and consisted of approximately $14.6 million in equity-based compensation expense as a result of the modification of the vesting schedules of awards outstanding prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions and approximately $11.2 million primarily related to the Pre-IPO Transactions. Further, we incurred approximately $9.4 million related to our rebranding initiative, which was completed in 2013. Excluding these costs, general and administrative expenses increased by approximately $11.3 million, or 15.5%, mainly due to an increase in equity-based compensation expense of approximately $3.2 million, public company transition costs of approximately $3.0 million, including approximately $1.5 million in secondary offering costs, and $1.9 million in consulting fees related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure. The remaining increase was primarily due to ongoing costs related to our new revenue management system and new human resources payroll system.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased by approximately $19.2 million, or 11.4%, to approximately $187.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $168.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily due to an increase in investment in hotel assets as a result of our hotel reinvestment program.

Impairment of long-lived assets. Asset impairments are recorded as required based on an evaluation of property and equipment and intangible assets for impairment. During the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, we recognized impairment charges related to property and equipment of approximately $2.3 million and $3.3 million, respectively.

Managed property payroll expenses. Managed property payroll expenses were $0 for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease was due to our acquisition of two hotels on December 31, 2013 which we previously managed.

Restructuring expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we initiated an operations restructuring, which changed certain aspects of our property staffing model, for which we incurred costs of approximately $0.6 million that consisted of personnel relocation, recruitment and separation payments. No restructuring expenses were incurred during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Acquisition transaction expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2013, we incurred acquisition transaction costs of approximately $0.2 million related to our acquisition of assets of 17 hotels from HFI Acquisitions Company LLC (“HFI”) in December 2012 and two hotels from LVP Acquisition Corporation (“LVP”) in December 2013. No acquisition transaction expenses were incurred during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Gain on sale of hotel properties. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $0.9 million, which related to the sale of our two Hometown Inn-branded hotels.

Other-non operating expense. During the year ended December 31, 2014, we recognized a non-cash foreign currency transaction loss of approximately $3.8 million related to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar versus the Canadian dollar at one of our Canadian currency-based entities which has U.S. dollar denominated debt.

 

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Interest expense, net. In the fourth quarter of 2013 and subsequent to the Offering, ESH REIT repaid $715.0 million of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans, terminated the Extended Stay LLC revolving credit facility and entered into the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility. Also, the Corporation entered into the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility. In the second quarter of 2014, ESH REIT repaid the remaining outstanding $365.0 million of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans using principally all of the net proceeds from its 2014 Term Loan. As a result of these transactions, the Company’s total debt and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock decreased by approximately $693.0 million, or 19.2%, from approximately $3.6 billion as of September 30, 2013 to approximately $2.9 billion as of December 31, 2014, and its weighted-average interest rate decreased from approximately 5.4% as of September 30, 2013 to approximately 4.0% as of December 31, 2014. For the year ended December 31, 2014, net interest expense decreased by approximately $85.1 million, or 36.3%, to approximately $149.4 million compared to approximately $234.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013.

For the year ended December 31, 2014, net interest expense includes approximately $9.4 million of debt extinguishment and other costs incurred in connection with the 2012 Mezzanine Loan prepayment of $365.0 million, which consist of prepayment penalties and other costs of approximately $4.3 million and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $5.1 million. For the year ended December 31, 2013, net interest expense included approximately $27.1 million of debt extinguishment and other costs incurred in connection with the 2012 Mezzanine Loan prepayment of $715.0 million, the establishment of the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility and the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility and the termination of the Extended Stay LLC revolving credit facility, which consisted of prepayment penalties and other costs of approximately $15.4 million and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $11.7 million.

Income tax expense (benefit). Our effective income tax rate was 23.0% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to (6.4)% for the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily due to legal, corporate structure and entity-related changes that were a result of the Pre-IPO Transactions, which included the recognition in 2013 of a deferred tax benefit at ESH REIT primarily related to net operating loss carryforwards recognized in connection with the change in ESH REIT’s expected distribution policy. Since the Corporation owns the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, which represents approximately 55% of the outstanding common stock of ESH REIT, approximately 55% of ESH REIT’s distributions are subject to corporate income tax. The Company’s effective tax rate is lower than the federal statutory rate of 35% due to ESH REIT’s status as a REIT under the provisions of the Code during these periods. ESH REIT will incur federal and state income tax at statutory rates on its taxable income not distributed.

Results of Operations—ESH REIT

ESH REIT owns all of its hotel properties. ESH REIT’s sole source of revenues is lease rental revenues and its hotel operating expenses reflect only those that are incurred directly related to ownership of the hotels. Costs reimbursed to ESA Management are reflected as a component of general and administrative expenses.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

As of December 31, 2014, ESH REIT owned 682 hotels consisting of 76,000 rooms. On December 8, 2015, ESH REIT sold a portfolio of 53 hotels, 47 of which operated under the Crossland Economy Studios brand and six of which operated under the Extended Stay America brand. As of December 31, 2015, ESH REIT owned 629 hotels consisting of approximately 69,400 rooms.

 

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The following table presents ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, including the amount and percentage change in these results between the periods (in thousands):

 

    Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Change ($)     Change (%)  

Revenues: Rental revenues from Extended Stay America, Inc.

  $ 719,635      $ 684,205      $ 35,430        5.2

Operating expenses:

       

Hotel operating expenses

    97,062        93,826        3,236        3.4

General and administrative expenses

    15,973        15,634        339        2.2

Depreciation and amortization

    199,044        183,033        16,011        8.7
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total operating expenses

    312,079        292,493        19,586        6.7

Gain on sale of hotel properties

    116,616        864        115,752        13397.2

Other income

    37        269        (232     (86.2 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income from operations

    524,209        392,845        131,364        33.4

Other non-operating expense

    2,726        3,629        (903     (24.9 )% 

Interest expense, net

    134,780        143,232        (8,452     (5.9 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income before income tax expense (benefit)

    386,703        245,984        140,719        57.2

Income tax expense (benefit)

    8,519        (1,110     9,629        (867.5 )% 
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income

  $ 378,184      $ 247,094      $ 131,090        53.1
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Rental revenues from Extended Stay America, Inc. Rental revenues increased by approximately $35.4 million, or 5.2%, to approximately $719.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $684.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Rental revenues consist of fixed minimum rental payments recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the lease plus specified percentages of total hotel revenues over designated thresholds paid by the Operating Lessees. Percentage rental revenues of approximately $228.8 million and $190.2 million were recognized during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Percentage rental revenues increased due to increased total hotel revenues at the leased hotel properties. The appreciation of the U.S. dollar relative to the Canadian dollar partially offset this increase.

Hotel operating expenses. Hotel operating expenses increased by approximately $3.2 million, or 3.4%, to approximately $97.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $93.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in property-related costs that were obligations of ESH REIT due to its ownership of the hotels, including loss on disposal of assets of approximately $3.6 million and real estate tax expense of $0.5 million due mainly to the reassessment of the tax values at our renovated properties. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in property insurance claims expense totaling approximately $0.7 million.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses increased by approximately $0.3 million, or 2.2%, to approximately $16.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $15.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase was mainly due to an increase in reimbursable costs of approximately $2.2 million to ESA Management for certain administrative services performed on ESH REIT’s behalf (including executive management, accounting, financial analysis, training and technology) as well as an increase in professional and other fees of approximately $0.8 million. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in public company transition costs and consulting fees totaling approximately $3.0 million.

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased by approximately $16.0 million, or 8.7%, to approximately $199.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $183.0

 

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million for the year ended December 31, 2014. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily due to an increase in investment in hotel assets as a result of our hotel reinvestment program.

Gain on sale of hotel properties. During the year ended December 31, 2015, ESH REIT recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $116.6 million, which related to the sale of a portfolio of 53 hotels, 47 of which operated under the Crossland Economy Studios brand and six of which operated under the Extended Stay America brand. During the year ended December 31, 2014, ESH REIT recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $0.9 million, which related to the sale of its two Hometown Inn-branded hotels.

Other-non operating expense. During the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, ESH REIT recognized non-cash foreign currency transaction losses of approximately $2.7 million and $3.6 million, respectively, mainly related to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar versus the Canadian dollar at one of its Canadian currency-based entities which has U.S. dollar denominated debt.

Interest expense, net. Excluding debt extinguishment costs of approximately $3.0 million and $9.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, net interest expense decreased approximately $2.0 million, or 1.5%, to approximately $131.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $133.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 primarily due to a decrease in ESH REIT’s outstanding debt. As of December 31, 2015, ESH REIT had total debt outstanding, net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount, of approximately $2,762.4 million compared to approximately $2,859.4 million as of December 31, 2014. ESH REIT’s weighted-average interest rate increased to approximately 4.4% as of December 31, 2015 from 3.9% as of December 31, 2014 primarily due to the issuance of the 2025 Notes, the proceeds of which were used to repay $500.0 million of the outstanding balance under its 2012 Mortgage Loan, a portion of which had a varying floating interest rate.

Income tax expense (benefit). ESH REIT’s effective income tax rate increased by approximately 2.7 percentage points to a provision of approximately 2.2% for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to a benefit of approximately 0.5% for the year ended December 31, 2014, primarily due to the use of ESH REIT’s existing net operating loss carryforward. ESH REIT’s effective tax rate is lower than the federal statutory rate of 35% due to its status as a REIT under the provisions of the Code during these periods. In the future, ESH REIT intends to distribute its taxable income to the extent necessary to optimize its tax efficiency including, but not limited to, maintaining its REIT status, while retaining sufficient capital for its ongoing needs. ESH REIT expects that such distributions will be approximately 95% of its taxable income. ESH REIT will incur federal and state income tax at statutory rates on its taxable income not distributed.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013

For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, the consolidated results of operations of ESH REIT include the results of operations of ESH REIT and its subsidiaries, which do not include the Operating Lessees. Further, the results of operations of ESA Management, which performs the management and administrative services previously performed by HVM, are not consolidated within ESH REIT’s results of operations, as ESA Management is owned by the Corporation.

ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for periods subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions present operating results in a manner which reflects ESH REIT’s legal and corporate structure, including the entity-related changes that were a result of the Pre-IPO Transactions. For example:

 

    For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations reflect ESH REIT’s sole source of revenues, lease rental revenues, which are not eliminated in consolidation due to the fact that ESH REIT does not own the Operating Lessees. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations reflected room and other hotel revenues, as lease rental revenues and expenses with respect to the operating leases between ESH REIT and its previously owned, consolidated taxable REIT subsidiaries, the Operating Lessees, eliminated in consolidation.

 

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    For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations reflect only those hotel operating expenses that are incurred directly related to ownership of the hotels. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations reflected all hotel operating expenses, whether such costs were incurred by ESH REIT (i.e., real estate tax expense and property insurance expense, which are directly related to the ownership of the hotels) or by the Operating Lessees (i.e., utilities expense, hotel personnel expense, marketing expense and repairs and maintenance expense, which are incurred by the Operating Lessees).

 

    For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, costs reimbursed to ESA Management do not eliminate in consolidation and are reflected as a component of general and administrative expenses. Prior to the Pre-IPO Transactions, since ESH REIT consolidated the results of operations of HVM, administrative costs paid to HVM eliminated in consolidation, and general and administrative expenses included all of ESH REIT predecessor’s overhead expenses.

As of December 31, 2013, ESH REIT owned 684 hotels consisting of approximately 76,200 rooms. In July 2014, ESH REIT sold two hotels which operated under the Hometown Inn brand. Therefore, as of December 31, 2014, ESH REIT owned 682 hotels consisting of 76,000 rooms.

 

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The following table presents ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, including the amount and percentage change in these results between the periods (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
    Change ($)     Change (%)  

Revenues:

        

Rental revenues from Extended Stay America, Inc.

   $ 684,205      $ 71,900      $ 612,305        (851.6 )% 

Hotel room revenues

     —          983,950        (983,950     n/m   

Other hotel revenues

     —          15,576        (15,576     n/m   

Management fees and other revenues

     —          1,113        (1,113     n/m   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total revenues

     684,205        1,072,539        (388,334     (36.2 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Operating expenses:

        

Hotel operating expenses

     93,826        478,727        (384,901     (80.4 )% 

General and administrative expenses

     15,634        86,676        (71,042     (82.0 )% 

Depreciation and amortization

     183,033        167,185        15,848        9.5

Impairment of long-lived assets

     —          3,330        (3,330     n/m   

Managed property payroll expenses

     —          639        (639     n/m   

Trademark license fees

     —          2,998        (2,998     n/m   

Restructuring expenses

     —          605        (605     n/m   

Acquisition transaction expenses

     —          235        (235     n/m   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total operating expenses

     292,493        740,395        (447,902     (60.5 )% 

Gain on sale of hotel properties

     864        —          864        n/m   

Other income

     269        1,075        (806     (75.0 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income from operations

     392,845        333,219        59,626        17.9

Other non-operating expense

     3,629        —          3,629        n/m   

Interest expense, net

     143,232        233,629        (90,397     (38.7 )% 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Income before income tax benefit

     245,984        99,590        146,394        147.0

Income tax benefit

     (1,110     (876     (234     26.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income

     247,094        100,466        146,628        145.9

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

     —          (730     730        n/m   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income attributable to common shareholders or members

   $ 247,094      $ 99,736      $ 147,358        147.7
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

n/m = not meaningful

Rental revenues from Extended Stay America, Inc. Rental revenues were approximately $684.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $71.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, the consolidated results of operations of ESH REIT include rental revenues associated with the operating leases, since during these periods, rental revenues were not eliminated in consolidation. Rental revenues consist of fixed minimum rental payments recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the lease plus specified percentages on total hotel revenues over designated thresholds paid by the Operating Lessees. Percentage rental revenues of approximately $190.2 million were recognized during the year ended December 31, 2014. For the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions, the consolidated results of operations of ESH REIT included the results of operations of the Operating Lessees. During that period, ESH REIT’s rental revenues, as well as the Operating Lessee’s rental expenses, eliminated in consolidation.

Hotel room revenues. In connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT transferred ownership of the Operating Lessees to the Corporation. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended

 

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December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of the Operating Lessees while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of the Operating Lessees for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions.

Other hotel revenues. In connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT transferred ownership of the Operating Lessees to the Corporation. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of the Operating Lessees while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included the results of operations of the Operating Lessees for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions.

Management fees and other revenues. ESA Management, a subsidiary of the Corporation, acquired all of the assets and assumed all of the liabilities of HVM in connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of ESA Management while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of HVM for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions.

Hotel operating expenses. In connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT transferred ownership of the Operating Lessees to the Corporation. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of the Operating Lessees while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of the Operating Lessees for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions. Hotel operating expenses decreased by approximately $384.9 million, or 80.4%, to approximately $93.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $478.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease was due to the fact that for the year ended December 31, 2014, hotel operating expenses include only those expenses directly related to ownership of the hotels, such as real estate tax expense and property insurance expense, and do not include hotel operating expenses incurred by the Operating Lessees.

Subsequent to the Pre-IPO Transactions, Hotel Operating Margin is not a relevant operating measure for ESH REIT as its sole source of revenues is rental revenue generated from leasing the hotel properties and its hotel operating expenses are limited to expenses directly related to ownership of the hotels.

General and administrative expenses. ESA Management acquired all of the assets and assumed all of the liabilities of HVM in connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of ESA Management while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of HVM for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions. General and administrative expenses decreased by approximately $71.0 million, or 82.0%, to approximately $15.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $86.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease was mainly due to the fact that for the year ended December 31, 2014, general and administrative expenses do not include direct expenses of ESA Management. For the year ended December 31, 2014, general and administrative expenses include professional fees, including legal, audit, tax, board and other fees of approximately $5.0 million, public company transition costs of approximately $1.4 million, which include secondary offering costs, and consulting fees of approximately $1.9 million related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure. Also included are reimbursed costs of approximately $7.3 million that ESH REIT incurred under its services agreement with ESA Management for certain overhead services performed on ESH REIT’s behalf (including executive management, accounting, financial analysis, training and technology).

Depreciation and amortization. Depreciation and amortization increased by approximately $15.8 million, or 9.5%, to approximately $183.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $167.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. The increase in depreciation and amortization was primarily due to an increase in investment in hotel assets as a result of our hotel reinvestment program.

 

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Impairment of long-lived assets. Asset impairments are recorded as required based on an evaluation of property and equipment for impairment. No impairment charges were incurred by ESH REIT during the year ended December 31, 2014. During the year ended December 31, 2013, ESH REIT recognized an impairment charge related to property and equipment of approximately $3.3 million.

Managed property payroll expenses. ESA Management acquired all of the assets and assumed all of the liabilities of HVM in connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of ESA Management while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of HVM for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions.

Trademark license fees. In connection with the Pre-IPO Transactions, ESH REIT transferred ownership of the Operating Lessees to the Corporation. ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2014 do not include results of operations of the Operating Lessees while ESH REIT’s consolidated results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2013 included results of operations of the Operating Lessees for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions.

Restructuring expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2013, HVM initiated an operations restructuring which changed certain aspects of its property staffing model, and incurred costs of approximately $0.6 million that consisted of personnel relocation, recruitment and separation payments. No restructuring expenses were incurred during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Acquisition transaction expenses. During the year ended December 31, 2013, ESH REIT incurred acquisition transaction costs of approximately $0.2 million related to the acquisition of assets of 17 hotels from HFI in December 2012 and two hotels from LVP in December 2013. No acquisition transaction expenses were incurred during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Gain on sale of hotel properties. During the year ended December 31, 2014, ESH REIT recognized a gain on sale of hotel properties of approximately $0.9 million, which related to the sale of its two Hometown Inn-branded hotels.

Other-non operating expense. During the year ended December 31, 2014, ESH REIT recognized a non-cash foreign currency transaction loss of approximately $3.6 million related to the appreciation of the U.S. dollar versus the Canadian dollar at one of ESH REIT’s Canadian currency-based entities which has U.S. dollar denominated debt.

Interest expense, net. In the fourth quarter of 2013 and subsequent to the Offering, ESH REIT repaid $715.0 million of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans, terminated the Extended Stay LLC revolving credit facility and entered into the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility. In the second quarter of 2014, ESH REIT repaid the remaining outstanding $365.0 million of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans using principally all of the net proceeds from its 2014 Term Loan. As a result of these transactions, ESH REIT’s total debt decreased by approximately $714.2 million, or 19.8%, from approximately $3.6 billion as of September 30, 2013 to approximately $2.9 billion as of December 31, 2014, and its weighted-average interest rate decreased from approximately 5.4% as of September 30, 2013 to approximately 3.9% as of December 31, 2014.

For the year ended December 31, 2014, net interest expense decreased by approximately $90.4 million, or 38.7%, to approximately $143.2 million compared to approximately $233.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2013. For the year ended December 31, 2014, net interest expense includes approximately $9.4 million of debt extinguishment and other costs incurred in connection with the 2012 Mezzanine Loan prepayments of $365.0 million, which consist of prepayment penalties and other costs of approximately $4.3 million and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $5.1 million. For the year ended December 31, 2013, net interest expense included approximately $26.9 million of debt extinguishment and other costs incurred in connection with the 2012 Mezzanine Loan prepayment of $715.0 million, the establishment of the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility and the termination of the Extended Stay LLC revolving credit facility, which consisted of prepayment penalties and other costs of approximately $15.2 million and the write-off of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $11.7 million.

 

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Income tax benefit. ESH REIT’s effective income tax rate was approximately (0.5)% for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to (0.9)% for the year ended December 31, 2013, primarily due to the 2013 recognition of a deferred tax benefit of approximately $6.6 million primarily related to net operating loss carryforwards recognized in connection with the change in ESH REIT’s distribution policy. ESH REIT’s effective tax rate is lower than the federal statutory rate of 35% due to its status as a REIT under the provisions of the Code during these periods. ESH REIT will incur federal and state income tax at statutory rates on its taxable income not distributed.

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA

EBITDA is defined as net income excluding: (1) net interest expense; (2) income tax expense (benefit); and (3) depreciation and amortization. EBITDA is a commonly used measure of performance in many industries. The Company believes that EBITDA provides useful information to investors regarding our operating performance as it helps us and investors evaluate the ongoing performance of our hotels after removing the impact of our capital structure, primarily net interest expense, our corporate structure, primarily income tax expense (benefit) and our asset base, primarily depreciation and amortization. We believe that the use of EBITDA facilitates comparisons between us and other lodging companies, hotel owners and capital-intensive companies. Additionally, EBITDA is a measure that is widely used by management in our annual budgeting and compensation planning processes.

The Company uses Adjusted EBITDA when evaluating our performance because we believe the adjustment for certain additional items, described below, provides useful supplemental information to investors regarding our ongoing operating performance and that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA, when combined with the U.S GAAP presentation of net income, net income per common share and cash flow provided by operating activities, is beneficial to the overall understanding of our ongoing operating performance. We adjust EBITDA for the following items and refer to this measure as Adjusted EBITDA:

 

    Non-cash equity-based compensation—We exclude non-cash charges related to the amortization of equity-based compensation awards to employees and directors.

 

    Other non-operating expense (income)—We exclude the effect of other non-operating expense or income, as we believe non-cash foreign currency transaction loss or gain is not reflective of ongoing or future operating performance.

 

    Impairment of long-lived assets—We exclude the effect of impairment losses recorded on property and equipment and intangible assets, as we believe they are not reflective of ongoing or future operating performance.

 

    Gain on sale of hotel properties—We exclude the gain on sale of hotel properties, as we believe it is not reflective of ongoing or future operating performance.

 

    Restructuring expenses—We exclude restructuring expenses that include employee separation payments and other restructuring costs, as we believe they are not reflective of ongoing or future operating performance.

 

    Acquisition transaction expenses—We exclude acquisition transaction expenses associated with the acquisition of hotels as we believe they are not reflective of ongoing or future operating performance.

 

    Other expenses—We exclude the effect of other expenses that we do not consider reflective of ongoing or future operating performance including the following: public company transition costs, including costs incurred in connection with secondary offerings, transaction costs associated with the sale of hotel properties, costs related to the preparations for our initial public offering, consulting fees related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives and loss on disposal of assets.

EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as presented may not be comparable to similar measures calculated by other companies. This information should not be considered as an alternative to net income, net income per

 

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common share, cash flow from operations or any other operating performance measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Cash expenditures for various real estate or hotel assets such as capital expenditures, interest expense and other items have been and will continue to be incurred and are not reflected in EBITDA or Adjusted EBITDA. Management compensates for these limitations by separately considering the impact of these excluded items to the extent they are material to operating decisions and assessments of operating performance. The Company’s consolidated and combined statements of operations and cash flows include capital expenditures, net interest expense and other excluded items, all of which should be considered when evaluating our performance, in addition to our non-GAAP financial measures. Additionally, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not solely be considered as measures of our liquidity or indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to pay distributions.

EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not meaningful or useful measures for ESH REIT on a stand-alone basis due to the fact that a Paired Share represents an investment in the Company, as a single, consolidated enterprise, which is reflected in the consolidated and combined Company results of operations; therefore, we believe these performance measures are meaningful for the Company only. The following table provides a reconciliation of net income to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the Company for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

Net income

   $ 283,022      $ 150,554      $ 82,656   

Interest expense, net

     137,782        149,364        234,459   

Income tax expense (benefit)

     76,536        45,057        (4,990

Depreciation and amortization

     203,897        187,207        168,053   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EBITDA

     701,237        532,182        480,178   

Non-cash equity-based compensation

     10,500        8,803        20,168   

Other non-operating expense

     2,732        3,763        —     

Impairment of long-lived assets

     9,011        2,300        3,330   

Gain on sale of hotel properties

     (130,894     (864     —     

Restructuring expenses

     —          —          605   

Acquisition transaction expenses

     —          —          235   

Other expenses

     10,495 (1)      10,476 (2)      14,094 (3) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted EBITDA

   $ 603,081      $ 556,660      $ 518,610   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Includes costs incurred in connection with the preparation of the registration statement filed in June 2015 and the November 2015 secondary offering of approximately $0.9 million, transaction costs of approximately $0.3 million associated with the sale of hotel properties and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million.
(2) Includes public company transition costs of approximately $3.0 million, including approximately $1.5 million in costs incurred in connection with the August 2014 secondary offering, consulting fees of approximately $1.9 million related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $5.6 million.
(3) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $11.2 million, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $2.9 million.

Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin

Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin measure hotel-level operating results prior to debt service, depreciation and amortization and general and administrative expenses and are supplemental measures of aggregate hotel-level profitability used by management to evaluate hotel operating profitability. We define Hotel Operating Profit as the sum of room and other hotel revenues less hotel operating expenses (excluding loss on disposal of assets) and Hotel Operating Margin as the ratio of Hotel Operating Profit divided by the sum of room and other hotel revenues.

 

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Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin are not meaningful or useful measures for ESH REIT on a stand-alone basis due to the fact that a Paired Share represents an investment in the Company, as a single, consolidated enterprise, which is reflected in the consolidated and combined Company results of operations; therefore, we believe these performance measures are meaningful for the Company only. The following table provides a reconciliation of room revenues, other hotel revenues and hotel operating expenses (excluding loss on disposal of assets) to Hotel Operating Profit and Hotel Operating Margin for the Company for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

Room revenues

   $ 1,265,653      $ 1,195,816      $ 1,113,956   

Other hotel revenues

     19,100        17,659        17,787   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total hotel revenues

     1,284,753        1,213,475        1,131,743   

Hotel operating expenses(1)

     594,788        586,497        537,661   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Hotel Operating Profit

   $ 689,965      $ 626,978      $ 594,082   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Hotel Operating Margin

     53.7     51.7     52.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Excludes loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million, $5.6 million and $2.9 million, respectively.

Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share

We present Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share as supplemental measures of the Company’s operating performance. We believe that these are useful measures for investors since our Paired Shares, directly through the common stock of the Corporation and Class B common stock of ESH REIT, and indirectly through the Corporation’s ownership of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, entitle holders of our Paired Shares to participate in 100% of the common equity and earnings of both the Corporation and ESH REIT. As required by U.S. GAAP, net income attributable to common shareholders excludes earnings attributable to ESH REIT’s Class B common shares, a noncontrolling interest. Based on the limitation on transfer provided for in each of the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s charters, shares of common stock of the Corporation and shares of Class B common stock of ESH REIT are transferrable and tradable only in combination as units, each unit consisting of one share of the Corporation’s common stock and one share of ESH REIT Class B common stock. As a result, we believe that Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share represent useful measures to holders of our Paired Shares.

Paired Share Income is defined as the sum of net income attributable to common shareholders or members and noncontrolling interests attributable to Class B common shares of ESH REIT. Adjusted Paired Share Income is defined as Paired Share Income adjusted for items that, net of income taxes, we believe are not reflective of our ongoing or future operating performance. We adjust Paired Share Income for the following items, net of income taxes, and refer to this measure as Adjusted Paired Share Income: debt extinguishment costs, other non-operating expense (including foreign currency transaction gain or loss), impairment of long-lived assets, gain on sale of hotel properties, restructuring expenses, acquisition transaction expenses and other expenses, such as public company transition costs, including costs incurred in connection with secondary offerings, transaction costs associated with the sale of hotel properties, costs related to the preparations for our initial public offering, consulting fees related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives and loss on disposal of assets. With the exception of equity-based compensation, an ongoing charge, and debt extinguishment costs, these adjustments (other than the effect of income taxes) are the same as those used in the reconciliation of EBITDA to Adjusted EBITDA.

 

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Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share is defined as Adjusted Paired Share Income divided by the number of Paired Shares outstanding on a basic and diluted basis. Until such time as the number of outstanding common shares of the Corporation and Class B common shares of ESH REIT differ, we believe Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share is useful to investors, as it represents the economic risks and rewards related to an investment in our Paired Shares. We believe that Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share provide meaningful indicators of the Company’s operating performance in addition to separate and/or individual analyses of net income attributable to common shareholders of the Corporation and net income attributable to Class B common shareholders of ESH REIT, each of which is impacted by specific U.S. GAAP requirements, including the recognition of contingent lease rental revenues and the recognition of lease rental revenues on a straight-line basis, and may not necessarily reflect how cash flows are generated on an individual entity or total enterprise basis. Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share should not be considered as an alternative to net income of the Company, net income of the Corporation, net income of ESH REIT, net income per share of common stock of the Corporation, net income per share of Class A or Class B common stock of ESH REIT or any other operating measure calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share are not meaningful or useful measures for ESH REIT on a stand-alone basis due to the fact that a Paired Share represents an investment in the Company, as a single, consolidated enterprise, which is reflected in the consolidated and combined Company results of operations; therefore, we believe these performance measures are meaningful for the Company only.

The following table provides a reconciliation of net income attributable to common shareholders or members to Paired Share Income, Adjusted Paired Share Income and a calculation of Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands, except per Paired Share data):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

Net income attributable to common shareholders or members

   $ 113,040      $ 39,596      $ 86,231   

Noncontrolling interests attributable to Class B common shares of ESH REIT

     169,966        110,942        (4,305 )(1) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Paired Share Income

     283,006        150,538        81,926   

Debt extinguishment costs

     2,392        7,185        22,984   

Other non-operating expense

     2,061        2,871        —     

Impairment of long-lived assets

     6,598        1,771        3,245   

Gain on sale of hotel properties

     (107,726 )      (659     —     

Restructuring expenses

     —          —          576   

Acquisition transaction expenses

     —          —          229   

Other expenses

     8,368 (2)      8,005 (3)      12,869 (4) 
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income

   $ 194,699      $ 169,711      $ 121,829   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share – basic

   $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.70   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Adjusted Paired Share Income per Paired Share – diluted

   $ 0.95      $ 0.83      $ 0.69   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average Paired Shares outstanding – basic

     204,211        203,548        174,894   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Weighted average Paired Shares outstanding – diluted

     204,567        204,508        176,268   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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(1) Prior to the change in our legal and corporate structure in November 2013, which occurred in connection with the Corporation’s and ESH REIT’s initial public offering, no portion of the Company’s (i.e., the Paired Shares’) noncontrolling interests represented interests attributable to Class B common shares of ESH REIT.
(2) Includes costs incurred in connection with the preparation of the registration statement filed in June 2015 and the November 2015 secondary offering of approximately $0.9 million pre-tax, transaction costs of approximately $0.3 million pre-tax associated with the sale of hotel properties and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $9.3 million pre-tax, which total approximately $8.4 million after-tax.
(3) Includes public company transition costs of approximately $3.0 million pre-tax, including approximately $1.5 million pre-tax in costs incurred in connection with the August 2014 secondary offering, consulting fees of approximately $1.9 million pre-tax related to the implementation of certain key strategic initiatives, including review of our corporate infrastructure, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $5.6 million pre-tax, which total approximately $8.0 million after-tax.
(4) Includes costs related to preparations for our initial public offering of approximately $11.2 million pre-tax, consisting primarily of the Pre-IPO Transactions, and loss on disposal of assets of approximately $2.9 million pre-tax, which total approximately $12.9 million after-tax.

Inflation

We do not believe that inflation had a material effect on our business during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 or 2013. Although we believe that increases in the rate of inflation will generally result in comparable increases in hotel room rates, severe inflation could contribute to a slowing of the national economy. Such a slowdown could result in a reduction in room rates and fewer room reservations, negatively impacting our revenues and net income.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Company Overview

On a consolidated and combined basis, we have historically generated significant cash flow from operations and have financed our ongoing business primarily with existing cash and cash flow generated from operations. We generated cash flow from operations of approximately $428.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015. Our current liquidity requirements consist primarily of funds necessary to pay for operating expenses associated with our hotels, recurring maintenance and capital expenditures necessary to maintain our hotels, general and administrative expenses, interest expense, income taxes, scheduled principal payments (including debt maturity payments) on ESH REIT’s outstanding indebtedness, potential Paired Share repurchases, Corporation distributions and required ESH REIT distributions. In addition to recurring maintenance and capital expenditures necessary to maintain our hotels, we are also performing, and expect to continue to perform, renovations to our hotels. See “—Capital Expenditures—Hotel Reinvestment Program.” We expect to fund our hotel reinvestment program from a combination of cash on hand, cash flow from operations and/or borrowings under our revolving credit facilities (as described below), as needed. Other long-term liquidity requirements are expected to include the need to obtain funds to acquire, develop or construct additional hotels, as well as funds for principal payments on ESH REIT’s 2012 Mortgage Loan, the 2014 Term Loan and the 2025 Notes maturing between December 2017 and May 2025 as well as the repayment of any outstanding amounts under our revolving credit facilities which mature in November 2016. See Note 7 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. We cannot assure you that the Corporation and/or ESH REIT will be able to refinance any of its debt on attractive terms at or before maturity or, on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

We expect to meet our long-term liquidity requirements through various sources of capital, including future debt or equity financings by the Corporation and/or ESH REIT, existing working capital and cash flow from operations. However, there are a number of factors that may have a material adverse effect on our ability to access these capital sources, including the current and future state of overall equity and credit markets, our degree of leverage, the value of our unencumbered assets and borrowing restrictions imposed by existing or prospective lenders, general market conditions for the lodging industry, our operating performance and liquidity and market perceptions about us. The success of our business strategy will depend, in part, on our ability to access these various capital sources. There can be no assurance that we will be able to raise any such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all.

 

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The Company had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $373.2 million and restricted cash of approximately $84.4 million at December 31, 2015. Based upon the current level of operations, management believes that our cash flow from operations together with our cash balances and available borrowings under our revolving credit facilities will be adequate to meet our anticipated funding requirements and business objectives for the foreseeable future. We regularly review our capital structure and at any time may refinance or repay existing indebtedness, incur new indebtedness or issue or purchase debt or equity securities.

In May 2015, ESH REIT issued $500.0 million of the 2025 Notes. ESH REIT used the proceeds to repay $318.0 million of Component A and $182.0 million of Component B of the 2012 Mortgage Loan.

In June 2015, the Corporation and ESH REIT filed an automatic shelf registration statement with the SEC pursuant to which, from time to time, (i) the Corporation and ESH REIT may offer and sell an unlimited number of Paired Shares and (ii) certain selling stockholders (the “Selling Shareholders”) may offer and sell up to 142,960,388 Paired Shares. The Selling Shareholders consist solely of entities affiliated with the Sponsors and do not include officers or directors of the Corporation or ESH REIT. In November 2015, the Selling Shareholders sold 15,000,000 Paired Shares into the public market pursuant to the automatic shelf registration statement. As of December 31, 2015, the Corporation and ESH REIT have not sold any securities registered pursuant to the automatic shelf registration statement. As such, neither the automatic shelf registration statement nor the secondary offering have impacted the Company’s liquidity.

In December 2015, the Company sold a portfolio of 53 hotel properties, 47 of which operated under the Crossland Economy Studios brand and six of which operated under the Extended Stay America brand, and certain intellectual property of Crossland Economy Studios for $285.0 million. The Company received approximately $276.3 million in proceeds related to the sale and recognized a gain of approximately $130.9 million, net of closing costs and adjustments. ESH REIT repaid approximately $86.1 million of the outstanding balance of the 2012 Mortgage Loan in December 2015 using a portion of the net proceeds from the sale. The remaining proceeds are expected to be used to pay income tax associated with the gain on sale, repurchase Paired Shares or fund future capital expenditures, acquisitions, development or construction of new hotels in compliance with ESH REIT’s existing debt agreements. See Note 4 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. At the same time, the Board of Directors of ESH REIT declared a special cash distribution of $0.19 per share, payable to ESH Hospitality, Inc.’s Class A and Class B common shareholders, totaling $86.5 million, $38.9 million of which is payable to holders of Paired Shares. Additionally, the Board of Directors of Extended Stay America, Inc. declared a special cash distribution of $0.06 per share, payable to Extended Stay America, Inc.’s common shareholders, totaling $12.3 million. These distributions, which total to $0.25 per Paired Share, were paid on January 18, 2016 to shareholders of record as of January 4, 2016.

On December 10, 2015, the Boards of Directors of Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. authorized a combined Paired Share repurchase program for up to $100 million of the Paired Shares. On February 23, 2016, the Boards of Directors of Extended Stay America, Inc. and ESH Hospitality, Inc. authorized an increase of the combined Paired Share repurchase program from $100 million to up to $200 million of Paired Shares. The program expires on December 31, 2016. Repurchases may be made at management’s discretion from time to time in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions or by other means (including through Rule 10b5-1 trading plans). Depending on market conditions and other factors, these repurchases may be commenced or suspended without prior notice. As of December 31, 2015, we have not repurchased any Paired Shares pursuant to the combined Paired Share repurchase program.

On February 23, 2016, the Board of Directors of ESH REIT declared a cash distribution of $0.15 per Class A and Class B common share for the fourth quarter of 2015. Additionally, the Board of Directors of the Corporation declared a cash distribution of $0.02 per common share for the fourth quarter of 2015. These distributions, which total $0.17 per Paired Share, will be payable on March 22, 2016 to shareholders of record as

 

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of March 8, 2016. See “Market for Registrants’ Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities—Distribution Policies” for a description of our distribution policies.

The Corporation

The Corporation’s primary source of liquidity is distribution income it receives in respect of its ownership of approximately 55% of the common stock of ESH REIT. Other sources of liquidity include income from the operations of the Operating Lessees, ESA Management and ESH Strategies.

The Corporation has accumulated, and we expect that it will continue to accumulate, cash. We expect that it will continue to distribute cash to its common shareholders, and that over time it will return cash to ESH REIT in order to fund the renovation, acquisition, development or construction of new hotels, the repayment of debt and for other corporate purposes. The Corporation may transfer cash to ESH REIT through the purchase of additional shares of Class A common stock, which would increase its ownership of ESH REIT and reduce the Company’s overall tax efficiency. The Corporation may also lend funds to ESH REIT through the execution of an unsecured intercompany credit facility, subject to the conditions contained in the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility, the 2014 Term Loan and the 2025 Notes. The covenants of any such unsecured intercompany credit facility would be expected to be customary for similar debt securities in light of then-prevailing market conditions. Entering into an unsecured intercompany credit facility and the terms of such credit facility are subject to a number of factors, and we may not enter into an intercompany credit facility at all. The Corporation’s long-term liquidity requirements will also include the repayment of any outstanding amounts under, or refinancing of, the Corporation’s revolving credit facility which matures in November 2016 and is subject to a one-year extension.

The Corporation is expected to continue to pay distributions on its common stock to meet a portion of our expected distribution rate on our Paired Shares. In 2016, the Corporation intends to distribute at least $0.02 per quarter per share of common stock, unless its consolidated results of operations, net income, liquidity, cash flows, financial condition or prospects, economic conditions or other factors, including the ability to effectively execute certain tax planning strategies, differ from current assumptions. The payment of distributions in the future will be at the discretion of the Corporation’s Board of Directors. Any such distributions will be made subject to the Corporation’s compliance with applicable law, and will depend on, among other things, the receipt by the Corporation of distributions from ESH REIT in respect of the Class A common stock, the Corporation’s results of operations and financial condition, level of indebtedness, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, restrictions in any existing and future debt agreements of the Corporation and ESH REIT and in any preferred stock and other factors that the Corporation’s Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Based upon the current level of operations, management believes that the Corporation’s cash position, cash flow from operations and available borrowings under the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility will be adequate to meet all of the Corporation’s funding requirements and business objectives for the foreseeable future.

ESH REIT

ESH REIT’s primary source of liquidity is rental revenues derived from contractual lease arrangements with the Operating Lessees. ESH REIT’s primary use of liquidity is fixed costs of ownership of the hotel properties, including interest expense, scheduled principal payments (including debt maturity payments) on its outstanding indebtedness, real estate tax expense, property insurance expense, capital expenditures, including those capital expenditures related to our hotel reinvestment program, and the payment of distributions. Other long-term liquidity requirements are expected to include the need to obtain funds to acquire, develop or construct additional hotels. In order to qualify and maintain its status as a REIT, ESH REIT must distribute annually to its shareholders an amount at least equal to:

 

    90% of its REIT taxable income, computed without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain; plus

 

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    90% of the excess of its net income, if any, from foreclosure property over the tax imposed on such income by the Code; less

 

    the sum of certain items of non-cash income that exceeds a percentage of ESH REIT’s income.

In the future, ESH REIT intends to distribute its taxable income to the extent necessary to optimize its tax efficiency including, but not limited to, maintaining its REIT status, while retaining sufficient capital for its ongoing needs. ESH REIT expects that such distributions will be approximately 95% of its taxable income. ESH REIT is subject to income tax on its taxable income that is not distributed and to an excise tax to the extent that certain percentages of its taxable income are not distributed by specified dates.

In 2016, ESH REIT intends to distribute at least $0.15 per quarter per share of Class A and Class B common stock, unless its consolidated results of operations, net income, liquidity, cash flows, financial condition or prospects, economic conditions or other factors differ from current assumptions. To the extent distributions in respect of the Class B common stock of ESH REIT are not sufficient to meet our expected Paired Share distributions, the expected Paired Share distributions are expected to be completed through distributions in respect of the common stock of the Corporation using funds distributed to the Corporation in respect of the Class A common stock of ESH REIT, after allowance for tax, if any, on those funds.

Due to REIT distribution requirements, ESH REIT has historically not accumulated significant amounts of cash and is not expected to do so in the future. As a result, and as discussed above, ESH REIT will need to refinance all or a portion of its debt, including the 2012 Mortgage Loans, the 2014 Term Loan and the 2025 Notes, on or before maturity. ESH REIT’s long-term liquidity requirements will also include the repayment of any outstanding amounts under ESH REIT’s revolving credit facility which matures in November 2016, subject to a one year extension. See Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K. We cannot assure you that ESH REIT will be able to refinance any of its debt on attractive terms at or before maturity, on commercially reasonable terms or at all.

Based upon the current level of operations, management believes that ESH REIT’s cash position, cash flow from operations and available borrowings under the ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facility will be adequate to meet all of ESH REIT’s funding requirements and business objectives for the foreseeable future.

Sources and Uses of Cash – The Company

The following cash flow tables and comparisons are provided for the Company:

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

We had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of approximately $373.2 million and $121.3 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The following table summarizes the changes in our cash and cash equivalents as a result of operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Change ($)  

Cash provided by (used in):

      

Operating activities

   $ 428,889      $ 370,485      $ 58,404   

Investing activities

     66,289        (182,243     248,532   

Financing activities

     (243,180     (127,160     (116,020

Effects of changes in exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents

     (83     (215     132   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

   $ 251,915      $ 60,867      $ 191,048   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled approximately $428.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $370.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, an increase of approximately $58.4 million. Cash flows from operations were positively impacted during the year ended December 31, 2015 by additional cash generated through improved hotel operating performance, specifically a 6.7% increase in RevPAR and a 200 bps increase in Hotel Operating Margin, slightly offset by higher income tax payments of approximately $33.4 million as a result of this improved performance and the Portfolio Sale.

Cash Flows provided by (used in) Investing Activities

Cash flows provided by investing activities totaled approximately $66.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to cash flows used in investing activities of approximately $182.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Cash flows provided by investing activities increased primarily due to the receipt of net proceeds of approximately $276.3 million from the Portfolio Sale in December 2015. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in proceeds related to insurable property events of approximately $8.7 million. Additionally, the Company increased its investment in property and equipment by approximately $31.5 million, primarily related to the renovation of a greater number of hotels in 2015, as evidenced by the fact that approximately 363,000 room nights were displaced from renovation during the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately 224,000 room nights displaced from renovation during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Cash Flows used in Financing Activities

Cash flows used in financing activities totaled approximately $243.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $127.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, an increase of approximately $116.0 million. Cash flows used in financing activities increased primarily due to an increase in net loan repayments of approximately $81.8 million, mainly related to the 2012 Mortgage Loan repayments of approximately $86.1 million in December 2015 as well as the mandatory prepayment of approximately $8.5 million on the 2014 Term Loan in March 2015 partially offset by 2014 revolving credit facility repayments of $20.0 million. Additionally, there was an increase in total distributions paid to holders of Paired Shares of approximately $26.9 million.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013

We had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of approximately $121.3 million and $60.5 million at December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The following table summarizes the changes in our cash and cash equivalents as a result of operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
    Change ($)  

Cash provided by (used in):

      

Operating activities

   $ 370,485      $ 311,313      $ 59,172   

Investing activities

     (182,243     (165,259     (16,984

Financing activities

     (127,160     (188,977     61,817   

Effects of changes in exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents

     (215     (202     (13
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

   $ 60,867      $ (43,125   $ 103,992   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled approximately $370.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $311.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $59.2 million. Cash flows from operations increased primarily due to a decrease in interest payments as a result of the partial repayment of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans, as well as improved hotel operating performance, specifically a 10 bps increase in occupancy and a 7.0% increase in ADR, which led to a 7.1% increase in RevPAR. These increases were partially offset by higher income tax payments as a result of the Company’s change in legal and corporate structure.

Cash Flows used in Investing Activities

Cash flows used in investing activities totaled approximately $182.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $165.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $17.0 million. Cash flows used in investing activities increased primarily due to an increase in restricted cash provided as collateral for insurance reserves of approximately $21.6 million and an increase in proceeds related to insurable property events of approximately $11.9 million. These increases were partially offset by the fact that no cash was used for hotel acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to $16.4 million used for hotel acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2013.

Cash Flows used in Financing Activities

Cash flows used in financing activities totaled approximately $127.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $189.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of approximately $61.8 million. Cash flows used in financing activities decreased primarily due to a decrease in net loan repayments of approximately $129.7 million. During 2013, the majority of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans were repaid using proceeds from the Offering and cash on hand, while the remaining balance was repaid during 2014 using principally all of the proceeds from the 2014 Term Loan. This decrease was offset by an increase in net payments of $40.0 million on revolving credit facilities and an increase in distributions paid to holders of Paired Shares of approximately $27.8 million.

Sources and Uses of Cash – ESH REIT

The following cash flow tables and comparisons are provided for ESH REIT:

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014

ESH REIT had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of approximately $223.3 million and $33.8 million at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively. The following table summarizes the changes in ESH REIT’s cash and cash equivalents as a result of operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Change ($)  

Cash provided by (used in):

      

Operating activities

   $ 511,985      $ 432,857      $ 79,128   

Investing activities

     61,034        (153,307     214,341   

Financing activities

     (383,579     (264,355     (119,224

Effects of changes in exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents

     —          24        (24
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

   $ 189,440      $ 15,219      $ 174,221   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled approximately $512.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $432.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, an increase of approximately $79.1 million. Cash flows from operations increased primarily due to an increase in rental revenues collected from the Operating Lessees of approximately $69.3 million, primarily due to increased hotel revenues of ESH REIT’s leased hotel properties for the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2014. This increase was supplemented by changes in certain working capital accounts.

Cash Flows provided by (used in) Investing Activities

Cash flows provided by investing activities totaled approximately $61.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to cash flows used in investing activities of approximately $153.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. Cash flows provided by investing activities increased primarily due to the receipt of net proceeds of approximately $265.0 million from the sale of the portfolio of 53 hotels in December 2015. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in proceeds related to insurable property events of approximately $8.7 million. Additionally, ESH REIT increased its investment in property and equipment by approximately $32.8 million, primarily related to the renovation of a greater number of hotels in 2015, as evidenced by the fact that approximately 363,000 room nights were displaced from renovation during the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately 224,000 room nights displaced from renovation during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Cash Flows used in Financing Activities

Cash flows used in financing activities totaled approximately $383.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to approximately $264.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, an increase of approximately $119.2 million. Cash flows used in financing activities increased primarily due to an increase in net loan repayments of approximately $81.8 million, mainly related to the 2012 Mortgage repayments of approximately $86.1 million in December 2015 as well as the mandatory prepayment of approximately $8.5 million on the 2014 Term Loan in March 2015 partially offset by 2014 revolving credit facility repayments of $20.0 million. Additionally, there was an increase in distributions paid to ESH REIT’s holders of Class A and Class B common shares of approximately $32.2 million.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2013

ESH REIT had unrestricted cash and cash equivalents of approximately $33.8 million and $18.6 million at December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The following table summarizes the changes in ESH REIT’s cash and cash equivalents as a result of operating, investing and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 (in thousands):

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
    Change ($)  

Cash provided by (used in):

      

Operating activities

   $ 432,857      $ 295,198      $ 137,659   

Investing activities

     (153,307     (164,078     10,771   

Financing activities

     (264,355     (215,679     (48,676

Effects of changes in exchange rate on cash and cash equivalents

     24        (147     171   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

   $ 15,219      $ (84,706   $ 99,925   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Cash Flows provided by Operating Activities

Cash flows provided by operating activities totaled approximately $432.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $295.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $137.7 million. Cash flow from operations increased primarily due to a decrease in interest payments as a result of the partial repayment of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans. For the year ended December 31, 2014 and for the period from the Pre-IPO Transactions through December 31, 2013, ESH REIT’s cash flows from operations do not include cash flows from operations of the Operating Lessees or our management entity while ESH REIT’s cash flows from operations for the period from January 1, 2013 through the Pre-IPO Transactions included cash flows from operations of the Operating Lessees and our management entity.

Cash Flows used in Investing Activities

Cash flows used in investing activities totaled approximately $153.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $164.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, a decrease of approximately $10.8 million. Cash flows used in investing activities decreased primarily due to the fact that no cash was used for hotel acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to $16.2 million used for hotel acquisitions in the year ended December 31, 2013. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in proceeds related to insurable property events of approximately $11.9 million.

Cash Flows used in Financing Activities

Cash flows used in financing activities totaled approximately $264.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to approximately $215.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, an increase of approximately $48.7 million. Cash flows used in financing activities increased primarily due to an increase in distributions paid to ESH REIT’s Class A and Class B common shareholders of approximately $162.5 million as well as net payments of $40.0 million on revolving credit facilities. These increases were partially offset by a decrease in net loan repayments of approximately $156.4 million. During 2013, the majority of the 2012 Mezzanine Loans were repaid using proceeds from the Offering and cash on hand, while the remaining balance was repaid during 2014 using principally all of the proceeds from the 2014 Term Loan.

Capital Expenditures

We maintain each of our hotels in good repair and condition and in conformity with applicable laws and regulations. The cost of all improvements and significant alterations are generally made with cash flows from operations. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, we incurred capital expenditures of approximately $204.7 million, $173.2 million and $172.5 million, respectively. These capital expenditures were primarily made as a result of our hotel reinvestment program, which remains ongoing. Funding for future capital expenditures is expected to be provided primarily from cash flows from operations or, to the extent necessary, the Corporation or ESH REIT Revolving Credit Facilities. In 2016, we expect to incur capital expenditures between $240.0 million and $260.0 million.

Hotel Reinvestment Program

Since 2011, we have been performing a significant number of hotel renovations and have been executing a phased capital investment program across our portfolio in order to seek to drive increases in ADR and incremental market share gains. We have developed a methodology for selecting specific hotels for our reinvestment program by evaluating potential returns based on multiple market and property specific variables. Prior to undertaking capital investment at a hotel, management determines whether, in its view, the investment is likely to result in incremental revenues and profits and achieve a return on investment that management believes would meet our return criteria.

 

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A hotel renovation generally requires approximately $1.0 million in capital spend per hotel. Hotel renovations typically include remodeling of common areas, new paint, carpet, signage, tile or vinyl flooring and counters in the bathrooms and kitchens, as well as the refurbishment of furniture, replacement of aged mattresses and installation of new flat screen televisions, artwork, lighting and bedspreads.

We have undertaken our hotel reinvestment program in phases. As of December 31, 2015, we have substantially completed renovations at 463 hotels, with total incurred costs of approximately $456.3 million. Also, as of December 31, 2015, we are in the process of implementing renovations at 13 additional hotels and will begin renovations at an additional 43 hotels during the first quarter of 2016, with combined estimated total costs of approximately $62.7 million. Renovations for all remaining Extended Stay America-branded hotels are expected to be completed by early 2017, with estimated total costs of approximately $125.8 million.

Rebranding

The Company incurred no rebranding costs during the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014. In 2013, we completed an extensive rebranding program to consolidate hotels that were operated under the former brands Homestead Studio Suites, Studio Plus and Extended Stay Deluxe to our core brand, Extended Stay America. We spent approximately $9.4 million on rebranding during the year ended December 31, 2013. Costs associated with rebranding were recorded as general and administrative expenses.

Our Indebtedness

As of December 31, 2015, our total indebtedness, including mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, was approximately $2.8 billion. For a detailed discussion of our indebtedness during the periods presented, see Notes 7 and 8 to the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

Contractual Obligations

The following table summarizes our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2015 (in thousands):

 

     Payments Due by Period  
     Total      2016      2017      2018      2019      2020      Thereafter  

ESH REIT 2012 Mortgage Loan(1)

   $ 1,931,157       $ —         $ 111,157       $ —         $ 1,820,000       $ —         $ —     

ESH REIT 2014 Term Loan (2)

     366,463         —           —           —           366,463         —           —     

ESH REIT 2025 Notes

     500,000         —           —           —           —           —           500,000   

Corporation mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     21,202         —           —           —           —           21,202         —     

Interest payments on outstanding debt obligations(3)(4)

     629,623         125,281         125,182         121,344         112,028         27,663         118,125   

Operating lease obligations

     96,934         2,649         2,718         2,788         2,843         2,964         82,972   

Other commitments(5)

     5,118         299         299         299         299         321         3,601   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total contractual obligations

   $ 3,550,497       $ 128,229       $ 239,356       $ 124,431       $ 2,301,633       $ 52,150       $ 704,698   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) The 2012 Mortgage Loan is included on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet net of unamortized deferred financing costs of approximately $19.5 million.
(2) The 2014 Term Loan is included on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount of approximately $3.6 million and $1.3 million, respectively. No mandatory prepayment is required during the three months ending March 31, 2016, based on the calculation of Excess Cash Flow for the year ended December 31, 2015. Contractual obligations exclude mandatory prepayments related to ESH REIT’s Excess Cash Flow for future years as they are not currently known.

 

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(3) Floating rate interest calculated using the base rate plus LIBOR floor of 0.75% for the 2014 Term Loan.
(4) Includes dividends payable on the Corporation’s mandatorily redeemable preferred stock.
(5) The Company has a commitment to make quarterly payments in lieu of taxes to the owner of the land on which one of the properties is located. The initial term of the agreement terminates in 2031.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

Neither the Corporation nor ESH REIT have off balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.

Critical Accounting Policies

Our discussion and analysis of our historical financial condition and results of operations is based on the Company’s historical consolidated and combined financial statements and ESH REIT’s historical consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates and assumptions. We believe the following accounting policies, which are described in detail in Note 2 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 of this combined annual report on Form 10-K, require material subjective or complex judgments and have the most significant impact on the Company’s and ESH REIT’s financial condition and results of operations: property and equipment, goodwill, revenue recognition, income taxes, equity-based compensation and investments. We evaluate estimates, assumptions and judgments on an ongoing basis, based on information that is then available to us, our experience and various matters that we believe are reasonable and appropriate for consideration under the circumstances.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

For discussion of recently issued accounting standards, see Note 2 to each of the consolidated and combined financial statements of Extended Stay America, Inc. and the consolidated financial statements of ESH Hospitality, Inc., both of which are included in Item 8 in this combined annual report on Form 10-K.

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

Both the Corporation and ESH REIT may continue to seek to reduce earnings and cash flow volatility associated with changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices by entering into financial arrangements to provide a hedge against a portion of the risks associated with such volatility, when applicable. We will continue to have exposure to such risks to the extent they are not hedged. We may enter into derivative financial arrangements to the extent they meet the foregoing objectives. We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes.

The Corporation

As of December 31, 2015, the Corporation had minimal exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates because it had no variable rate debt as there were no outstanding amounts drawn on the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility. The Corporation’s exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates will increase in future periods should the Corporation incur variable rate debt, including draws on the Corporation Revolving Credit Facility.

 

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ESH REIT

As of December 31, 2015, approximately $366.5 million of ESH REIT’s outstanding gross indebtedness of approximately $2.8 billion had a variable rate of interest. If market rates of interest on ESH REIT’s variable rate debt fluctuate by 1.0%, interest expense would increase or decrease, and depending on the rate movement, ESH REIT’s future earnings and cash flows would fluctuate by approximately $2.5 million annually, assuming that the amount outstanding under ESH REIT’s variable rate debt remains at approximately $366.5 million.

As of December 31, 2015, less than 1.5% of the book value of ESH REIT’s hotels are owned outside the United States. ESH REIT has exposure to market risk from changes in foreign currency exchange rates for its Canadian hotels. A fluctuation of 1.0% in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar would result in a foreign currency transaction gain or loss of approximately $0.2 million.

 

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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

 

     Page
Number
 

EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED AND COMBINED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     85   

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014

     86   

Consolidated and Combined Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     87   

Consolidated and Combined Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December  31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     88   

Consolidated and Combined Statements of Changes in Equity for the Years Ended December  31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     89   

Consolidated and Combined Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     90   

Notes to Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements

     91   

ESH HOSPITALITY, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     124   

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2015 and 2014

     125   

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     126   

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     127   

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     128   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013

     129   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     130   

FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

  

Schedule III—Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation

     160   

 

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of

Extended Stay America, Inc.

Charlotte, North Carolina

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Extended Stay America, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the related consolidated and combined statements of operations, comprehensive income, changes in equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2015. Our audits also included the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15. These financial statements and financial statement schedule are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the financial statements and financial statement schedule based on our audits.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

In our opinion, such consolidated and combined financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Extended Stay America, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2015, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also, in our opinion, such financial statement schedule, when considered in relation to the basic consolidated and combined financial statements taken as a whole, presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein.

As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company has changed its presentation of debt issuance costs as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 due to the retrospective adoption of an accounting standards update regarding the presentation of debt issuance costs.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2015, based on the criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 23, 2016 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Charlotte, North Carolina

February 23, 2016

 

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EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2015 AND 2014

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

     December 31,
2015
    December 31,
2014
 

ASSETS

    

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT—Net of accumulated depreciation of $781,929 and $622,514

   $ 3,921,341      $ 4,087,448   

RESTRICTED CASH

     84,416        73,382   

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

     373,239        121,324   

INTANGIBLE ASSETS—Net of accumulated amortization of $7,010 and $5,814

     29,723        31,656   

GOODWILL

     53,531        55,633   

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE—Net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $2,413 and $2,762

     18,164        26,552   

OTHER ASSETS

     48,486        53,147   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL ASSETS

   $ 4,528,900      $ 4,449,142   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

    

LIABILITIES:

    

Mortgage loan payable—Net of unamortized deferred financing costs of $19,536 and $27,299

   $ 1,911,621      $ 2,490,750   

Term loan facility payable—Net of unamortized deferred financing costs and debt discount of $4,940 and $6,359

     361,523        368,641   

Senior notes payable—Net of unamortized deferred financing costs of $10,756 and $0

     489,244        —     

Mandatorily redeemable preferred stock—$0.01 par value, $1,000 redemption value, 8.0%, 350,000,000 shares authorized, 21,202 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2015 and 2014

     21,202        21,202   

Accounts payable and accrued liabilities

     243,969        172,440   

Deferred tax liabilities

     12,984        6,792   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total liabilities

     3,040,543        3,059,825   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Note 13)

    

EQUITY:

    

Common stock—$0.01 par value, 3,500,000,000 shares authorized, 204,593,912 and 204,517,265 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively

     2,049        2,048   

Additional paid in capital

     784,194        779,447   

Retained earnings

     102,184        13,833   

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

     (8,754     (5,810
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total Extended Stay America, Inc. shareholders’ equity

     879,673        789,518   

Noncontrolling interests

     608,684        599,799   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total equity

     1,488,357        1,389,317   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY

   $ 4,528,900      $ 4,449,142   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated and combined financial statements.

 

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EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED AND COMBINED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015, 2014 AND 2013

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

     Year
Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year
Ended
December 31,
2013
 

REVENUES:

      

Room revenues

   $ 1,265,653      $ 1,195,816      $ 1,113,956   

Other hotel revenues

     19,100        17,659        17,787   

Management fees, license fees and other revenues

     —          —          1,075   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues

     1,284,753        1,213,475        1,132,818   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

OPERATING EXPENSES:

      

Hotel operating expenses

     604,087        592,101        540,551   

General and administrative expenses

     98,625        84,381        108,325   

Depreciation and amortization

     203,897        187,207        168,053   

Impairment of long-lived assets

     9,011        2,300        3,330   

Managed property payroll expenses

     —          —          728   

Restructuring expenses

     —          —          605   

Acquisition transaction expenses

     —          —          235   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total operating expenses

     915,620        865,989        821,827   

GAIN ON SALE OF HOTEL PROPERTIES (NOTE 4)

     130,894        864        —     

OTHER INCOME

     45        388        1,134   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

INCOME FROM OPERATIONS

     500,072        348,738        312,125   

OTHER NON-OPERATING EXPENSE

     2,732        3,763        —     

INTEREST EXPENSE, NET

     137,782        149,364        234,459   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAX EXPENSE (BENEFIT)

     359,558        195,611        77,666   

INCOME TAX EXPENSE (BENEFIT)

     76,536        45,057        (4,990
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INCOME

     283,022        150,554        82,656   

NET (INCOME) LOSS ATTRIBUTABLE TO NONCONTROLLING INTERESTS

     (169,982     (110,958     3,575   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS OR MEMBERS

   $ 113,040      $ 39,596      $ 86,231   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INCOME PER COMMON SHARE:

      

Basic

   $ 0.55      $ 0.19      $ 0.49   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

   $ 0.55      $ 0.19      $ 0.49   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

WEIGHTED-AVERAGE COMMON SHARES OUTSTANDING:

      

Basic

     204,211        203,548        174,894   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Diluted

     204,567        204,508        176,268   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated and combined financial statements.

 

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EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED AND COMBINED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015, 2014 AND 2013

(In thousands)

 

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

NET INCOME

   $ 283,022      $ 150,554      $ 82,656   

FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION LOSS, NET OF TAX

     (6,321     (2,728     (3,980
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

     276,701        147,826        78,676   

COMPREHENSIVE (INCOME) LOSS ATTRIBUTABLE TO NONCONTROLLING INTERESTS

     (166,605     (109,972     3,575   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

COMPREHENSIVE INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS OR MEMBERS

   $ 110,096      $ 37,854      $ 82,251   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated and combined financial statements.

 

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EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED AND COMBINED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN EQUITY

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015, 2014 AND 2013

(In thousands, except per share data)

 

 

    Members’
Capital
          Additional
Paid in
Capital
    Retained
Earnings
(Accumulated
Deficit)
    Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income
(Loss)
    Total
Shareholders’

and
Members’

Equity
    Non-
controlling
Interests
    Total
Equity
 
                   
    Common
Stock
             
    Shares     Amount              

BALANCE—January 1, 2013

  $ 744,524        —        $ —        $ —        $ 5,010      $ 124      $ 749,658      $ 3,157      $ 752,815   

Net income (loss)

    —          —          —          —          86,231        —          86,231        (3,575     82,656   

Foreign currency translation loss, net of tax

    —          —          —          —          —          (3,980     (3,980     —          (3,980

Member distributions—$0.20 per LLC member interest

    —          —          —          —          (78,400     —          (78,400     (2,011     (80,411

ESH REIT preferred distributions

    —          —          —          —          (16     —          (16     —          (16

Equity-based compensation

    4,094        100        —          14,712        —          —          18,806        1,362        20,168   

Company reorganization

    (748,618     172,200        1,723        424,233        (38,588     (212     (361,462     329,273        (32,189

Sale of equity, net of issuance costs

    —          32,488        325        333,414        —          —          333,739        268,426        602,165   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

BALANCE—December 31, 2013

    —          204,788        2,048        772,359        (25,763     (4,068     744,576        596,632        1,341,208   

Net income

    —          —          —          —          39,596        —          39,596        110,958        150,554   

Foreign currency translation loss, net of tax

    —          —          —          —          —          (1,742     (1,742     (986     (2,728

ESH REIT common distributions—$0.53 per Class B common share

    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          (108,504     (108,504

ESH REIT preferred distributions

    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          (16     (16

Equity-based compensation

    —          (271     —          7,088        —          —          7,088        1,715        8,803   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

BALANCE—December 31, 2014

    —          204,517        2,048        779,447        13,833        (5,810     789,518        599,799        1,389,317   

Net income

    —          —          —          —          113,040        —          113,040        169,982        283,022   

Foreign currency translation loss, net of tax

    —          —          —          —          —          (2,944     (2,944     (3,377     (6,321

Corporation common distributions—$0.12 per common share

    —          —          —          —          (24,689     —          (24,689     —          (24,689

ESH REIT common distributions—$0.79 per Class B common share

    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          (162,351     (162,351

ESH REIT preferred distributions

    —          —          —          —          —          —          —          (16     (16

Equity-based compensation

    —          77        1        4,747        —          —          4,748        4,647        9,395   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

BALANCE—December 31, 2015

  $ —          204,594      $ 2,049      $ 784,194      $ 102,184      $ (8,754   $ 879,673      $ 608,684      $ 1,488,357   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

See accompanying notes to consolidated and combined financial statements.

 

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EXTENDED STAY AMERICA, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED AND COMBINED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015, 2014 AND 2013

(In thousands)

 

 

     Year Ended
December 31,
2015
    Year Ended
December 31,
2014
    Year Ended
December 31,
2013
 

OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

      

Net income

   $ 283,022      $ 150,554      $ 82,656   

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:

      

Depreciation

     202,531        185,833        166,679   

Amortization of intangible assets

     1,366        1,374        1,374   

Foreign currency transaction loss

&